A website will not be visible in search engine result pages if it is not indexed by the Google. It is typical that search engines often crawl through websites and index the content to display it in the search results based on their rankings. However, sometimes as a website owner you may want to restrict the access to some of your website pages for the web traffic. Or perhaps, you may prefer to block duplicate content from being indexed by search engines. One such way to manage the accessibility of different webpages on your website is with the use of robots.txt file or robots meta-tag.
What is a robots.txt File?
Robots.txt is a simple text file that tells search engines which website file to index and which pages you would like to avoid. However, it doesn’t restrict search engines from crawling your website. When a search engine crawler visits your website, it basically looks for robots.txt file to get the data on which files to index and which to ignore. For this reason the location of the file is very important to make sure the file is available to user-agents (search engines) at the top level directory of your site. In any case, if the file is not available at the main directory, the search engines will assume that the site has no restriction on indexing their webpages.
Robots.txt file contains several records in its text file with each record having two elements, user-agent and disallow. While ‘user-agent’ indicates which search engines to follow the disallow, the ‘Disallow’ element represents the files and directories to be excluded from indexing.
A typical example of a robots.txt file is :
Since the disallow file is not mentioned in the above example, it allows search engines to crawl all pages of the website.
Robot Meta Tag
Another method is to include a HTML robot meta tag in the source code to provide search engines with instructions whether to crawl, index or present the page in search results.
A typical robot meta tag looks like
<meta name=”robots” content=”noindex”>
Several attributes can be added to the content such as nosnippet, index or noindex, follow or nofollow separated by commas. The combination of different attributes will decide how the search engines will act on the site. In case if no robot meta tag is mentioned in the code, then the default is assumed as “Index, follow”. If you want the whole site to have the same affect, then the robot tag must be applied to the index page. However, if you want to give options at the page level, then the tag should be put in that page.
When you are in business, you obviously think about taking your business online whether or not you are prepared to face the potential risks associated with it. Once you start a website, you try to improve internet presence so that your business will be exposed to the customers world wide. This process is quite normal because people think that having online presence will give their business global exposure. What they don’t realize is, a website can not only improve their product sales, but can be used for making some extra income based on the number of visitors to their site. There are many ways to make revenue online and some of them are mentioned below
How to Make Money Online
It is one of the popular models to make money online as the site owners get paid for displaying third party ads in their website. As a site owner you can decide on the number of ads that you will be publishing, and the space where you can accommodate it in your website. Based on the revenue that you will be getting from the advertiser, you can think of selling the ad space whether to place it in the most visited location or in the regular space with moderate visitors. However, there are few things to consider like site content, ad suitability, and demographics so that the advertisements can be targeted to the right customers to ensure maximized revenues for the advertisers.
Have you ever thought the customer information that is sitting in your database is more valuable and can generate good amount of online revenues for your business. The site owners can charge for the data that they will be sharing with third parties or can deliver messages with banners and images in the newsletters on behalf of the advertiser to their customers. In this model, the revenues mostly depend upon the information that exists in the database because the more number of email lists you have, the more emails can be sent to the customers regularly.
Resource directories are becoming very popular now-a-days because they hold valuable information about the local venues, such as doctors, schools, restaurants, hospitals etc. Some of them are free online while others charge for providing the required information from their directories. To be more specific the websites can have directories that are local to particular community or can be of a particular service or group.
This is quite suitable for small websites or personal blogs as sometimes people hardly make money through their informational sites. As a site owner you can publish the ad belonging to a third party business and get paid for campaigning about their products. The amount paid is based on the revenues that are generated through the publisher site. However, the publisher has the authority to decide where to place the advertisement but cannot alter the information existing in the ad.
What is more important when you are thinking about online revenue?
When you are thinking about making online revenues, the one thing that you need to ensure is, the website has to run without interruption for any reason. Imagine that you have worked so hard to design the internet revenue models for your website and suddenly you notice it is down for some technical reason. You will have fewer options left to react to that situation because you are not fully prepared for the website downtime. To minimize the impact of downtime on your business, you can always plan having website monitoring service that tracks site functionality and alerts customers about the issues ahead of time, so that you have enough time to take the precautionary measures.
In thermal electric energy generation, boilers play an important role in the production of the electricity. The air and gases flow rate inside the boilers is maintained by the set of fans called draft fans. There are mainly two kinds of draft fans – forced draft fans and induced draft fans. The main purpose of the draft fans is to supply the required amount of air inside the boiler and to remove the gases that are formed after combustion of the fuel. The draft fans used in the industry may vary depending upon the type of the industry, size and shape of the boiler.
Meaning of draft
The difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure inside a boiler is called draft. It can also be defined as the pressure difference between motion of fuel gases and the air flow. Draft in the boiler is produced by the rise of the combustion gases in the stack, fuel or by any mechanical means.
Types of Drafts
- Natural Draft
In this kind of draft air and fuel gases flow due to differences in the density of the hot gases and ambient air. When the density difference creates pressure difference it moves the hotter fuel gases into the cooler environment. The chimney must be kept warm enough to exhaust the burnt fuel gases. The pressure inside the system is negative with this kind of draft. Natural draft system do not have any kind of fan arrangement in it.
- Forced Draft
When air flow and fuel gases are maintained at higher pressure it is called as forced draft. This phenomenon is seen at air inlet of the combustion chamber. All oil burners and few gas burners use forced draft. We cannot use a single forced draft system, but two forced draft systems can be coupled. Some forced draft systems produce negative vent pressure as in case of conventional oil furnace and some produce positive vent pressure as in case of gas furnaces.
- Induced Draft
In the induced draft, the air flow and fuel gases flow is maintained at low pressure. This phenomenon is seen at outlet of the fuel gases after combustion. Induced draft is produced in order to move the exhaust gases faster. This helps in the quick burning of the next set of fuel. If the induced draft system is not available in the process there can be traces of burnt gases which reduce the efficiency of the system.
- Balanced Draft
In balanced draft the static pressure inside the combustion chamber becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure. In this kind of draft there is no action of fan, as the system is balanced.The induced and forced draft process involves the action of the fan in order to increase the efficiency of the system. Draft fans can be either centrifugal or axial.
Retrofitting is changing one or more parts of an equipment to make design modifications so that it improves the effect of existing performance. Fan retrofit is a profitable exercise for companies and have a great impact on company’s yield, profit and safety. Almost all type of centrifugal fans and axial fans can be retrofitted.
Need for retrofitting
- Optimization of existing fans
- Retrofitting of industrial fans involves adding of a component to the existing fans system in order to achieve increased performance.
- In fans, retrofitting helps in changing the system resistance either to increase or decrease it.
- If system resistance did not match with the pressure at the best efficiency point, the fan will not deliver its best output. System resistance is a kind of pressure demanded by system connected to fan for a given flow rate of gases.
- As the retrofitting is done, in the working area itself an individual can have their choices on how to modify the system.
- Economic alternative
- Retrofitting is an economic alternative as there is no need to buy an entire new system. It also involves less time for installation.
- Retrofitting involves simple part assembles which does not require skilled labor. This requires man power who can work for lesser pay than more skilled workers.
- Regulate pollution
- Retrofitting indirectly helps in controlling the pollution as the performance of the fan is increased. Due to performance increase, a fan will perform more work at the same given input. Secondly, when the fan is retrofitted the amount of contaminant gases will be effectively taken out of the work place and this helps in regulation of pollution.
Key ways of retrofitting
- When the flow of a fan is reduced, rotor and inlet cone are replaced in order to enhance flow and pressure for the same input power of an industrial fan.
- Industrial fan also consists of small parts which are to be modified to obtain increased efficiency. The parts which are involved are casing of fan, inlet boxes, dampers and silencers etc.
- Bearings in fan are one of the most important parts. The life of a fan depends on the working condition of bearings. Retrofitting of bearings will ensure more life and lesser maintenance.
- Industrial fan consists of rotating parts, which cause wear of the material. Changing the material of construction of rotor or any other parts of fan will result in good wear life.
- Retrofitting also involves design changes and modifications for lesser noise and power consumption.
Retrofitting is a better alternative to optimize the fan performance. This enhancement process is very cost-effective, advantages and requires less time span.
Individuals who are employed are protected by a variety of labor laws. These regulations give workers a security and rights within a work place. The main goal of this laws is to render a healthy and safe working environment. Employers who defy labor laws face suspension or a loss of license, penalties and fines and imprisonment in extreme cases.
Working people across the world have the right to coordinate in order to address a range of issues, the most critical being benefits and working conditions, wages etc. with labor lawyers being the exception most of us doesn’t know every single law that does or doesn’t protect as working people.
The basic labor law rights are as follows:
- Right to bargain for a contract collectively that sets benefits, hours, wages ad other working conditions.
- Right to act with coworkers by raising complaints to improve thew working conditions with a government agency or an employer.
- Right to discuss working conditions, wages or a union in certain settings or organizing with co workers.
- The right to join or form a union.
- The right to strike.
The laws enforced offers protection in the important areas of:
- workers compensation
- work place safety and health
- plant closings and layoff
- wages and hours
- employee befits
- medical leave or time off for family
- Benefits for Retirement
The following are few acts responsible for enforcing and administering laws that establish acceptable standards for working conditions and wages:
Fair labor standards act: This law affects both public and private employment. This act requires employers to pay covered non exempt employees a least of the federal overtime pay or minimum wage for all hours.
- Compensable hours worked include the time an employee is on duty or at prescribed work place and time that an employee is permitted to work.
Migrant and seasonal agricultural worker protection act: This act requires agricultural employers, labor contractors and agricultural associations who employ workers to
- Comply with state and federal health and safety standards if they provide shelter(housing) for migrant workers.
- Pay the workers wages owed when due.
- Provide with written disclosure of the employment terms and conditions.
- Also ensure that the vehicles used to transport their workers are operated by licensed rivers, properly insured and meet the state and federal safety standards.
Whether you are a business owner or a worker you should know about these laws. ignoring these legal matters may be one of the common causes for problems in work place leading to disputes and disagreements.
Dentures when implanted have to maintained and care should be taken properly to avoid unnecessary and costly repair. Caring your dentures helps in maintaining your over all mouth health. It may be either a partial or full dentures they have to be kept in good condition and for this the following guide provides you with necessary information.
Steps for caring your dentures
Daily brushing of the dentures
Oral hygiene is as important for the dentures similar to the way the real teeth are taken care of. After taking out the dentures every night ensure to clean them by brushing gently thus removing the food particles, stains and dental plaque. A soft bristled denture brush with a cleanser or a mild hand soap can be used for cleaning them effectively.
Do not forget to clean gums, palate and tongue
Mouth should be kept clean by brushing your tongue, gums and palate twice a day every evening and morning before reinserting the dentures back which helps in keeping the dentures clean. Brushing stimulates blood circulation in the mouth and gums thus removing plaque buildup.
Soak the dentures when not in use
Dentures have to be kept moist by soaking them either in water or any cleansing solution if your dentist provides. Because soaking enables the dentures to retain in shape and avoid them drying out. Hot water shouldn’t be used for soaking because they may cause them to deform.
Schedule and follow up appointments with your dentist
Follow up with your dentist with regular appointment in case you are a wearing the dentures for the first time . Because they cause soreness in your cheeks and discomfort hence get the adjustments done to avoid serious problems in near future.
Careful handling of your dentures
Dentures have to e handled carefully while removing and reinserting them else they break down if dropped down over a hard surface.
Practice speaking and chewing
Initially dentures make you feel uncomfortable while speaking and chewing hence they have to be practiced gradually to help improve pronouncing and chewing larger food particles.
Better to avoid denture repair kits
Never go repairing your own dentures if they undergo any damage and better head to your dentists for fixing them up.
Get the dentures regularly relined
Bone structures and gums gets altered through out your life time and in case of people wearing dentures they cause the dentures to loosen. Dentures if not present with proper fitting will rise infections and soreness in your cheeks. Getting the dentures relined by your dentists is essential to avoid unnecessary infections in your mouth once in every 3 years.
Proper care for your dentures have to be taken and also they have to be remade every 5-6 years to avoid facial appearance changes which becomes difficult to correct in the long run.
Diagnodent is a handy laser instrument. This technology is used to scans teeth for detecting any hidden decays if present. It helps protect and preserve the functionality of the tooth.
Building up of bacteria on the occlusal or smooth surfaces of teeth and gums, leads to form a soft sticky layer called plaque. The bacteria feed on the sugar that we eat and drink and produce acids. These acids attack the tooth surface and gradually dissolve the outer coating of tooth (enamel). If frequent sugar consumption continues the enamel will eventually break down and a hole (cavity) will appear leading to demineralization of dental enamel leading to destruction.
Flouridation at certain extent and efficient oral hygiene habits halt the progression of the lesion and also may lead to remineralization. As present diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough hence expertsput forward a modern approach of preventing it rather than invasive repair by using tools based on flourescence and diagnodent being the one among them.
Working with diagnodent
Diagnodent caries detector operates at a wavelenth range of 655 nm and at this specific wavelength healthy tooth structure does not exhibit little or no fluorescence indicating reading on display to be of a low scale.further for carious tooth structure the amount of flourescnece emitted will be proportional to the extent of caries detection where elevated scale readings are displayed hence through the practitioner can go with a more accurate treatment for curing it. Also a audio signal operates which allows the operator to hear changes occuring in the scale values thus enabling one to focus more on the patient than the device.
Analysis of the results obtained in a diagnodent
|Stage||D – value||Interpretation & Result|
|1||Up to 20||Dissolvation of the enamel resulting a lesion|
|2||21-30||Frequent acid attacks allowed the decay to travel deeper|
|3||31-60||Decaying entered the softer layer dentine|
|4||61-99||Destroy of the softer dentine layer even more|
|5||99||Decay of the pulp chamber (nerves and blood vessels)|
|6||N/A||Tooth has been destroyed|
Secure detection of caries – benefits at a glance
- Improved patient loyalty due to pleasant methods of treatment and successful prevention .
- Reduced use of the manual probe, decreased abrasion of the enamel .
- Gentle measurement enables without the unnecessary removal of healthy enamel.
- 90% accurate in caries detection have been proved.
- Uses minimal invasive techniques including micro rotary instrumentation, air abrasion, etc.
- Allows monitoring of caries prognosis.
- Small portable device which is simple to operate.
Diagnodent can be proved by (High patient loyalty + improved service = increased success of your dental practice) hence usage of efficient techniques for caries detection has been proved succesful and is widely used in hospitals for effective diagnosis and treatment.
OSHA starts its inspection process in several stages, once the complaint is reported in the OSHA office. So, if you are an employee or an employer of the organization, you must be aware of the inspection process; because, it can happen any time without a prior notice; and in fact, if anyone informs about the inspection in advance they are subjected to a possible fine or jail sentence.
Before starting the inspection, compliance office of the OSHA will undertake the research about the inspection history of the workplace, with the help of various information sources. OSHA will also review the processes in use along with the standards that are likely to be applicable. OSHA will gather the necessary testing instruments and personal protective equipment, in order to measure the potential hazard in the workplace.
Presenting inspector credentials
Once the above process is finished, the onsite inspection will start from presenting the credentials of the compliance officer with a serial number and a photograph. The officer will display these credentials when he/she appears at the site, and asks the employer or representative responsible for that to meet; and it is the responsibility of the employer to ask the credentials of the compliance officer. For this, he/she should make a call to the nearest OSHA state or federal office to confirm the same.
In this stage, the compliance officer will explain reason for the inspection in that workplace, apart from explaining about the scope of the inspection, walk around processes, employee interview and employee representation. Then, in order to accompany the OSHA compliance officer during the inspection, the employer will select the representative and an authorized employee representative can also join them. In any situation, the compliance officer is permitted to privately consult the reasonable number of employees at the time of inspection.
After that, the compliance officer will walk through the areas of the workplace for inspecting the hazards that may lead to the injuries or illness. Also, the officer will review the workplace for illness and injury reports, and posting of OSHA posters in the workplace. He/she may also point out the violations that can be immediately corrected, apart from trying to minimize the interruptions that may happen at the time of inspection. Of course, they keep the information confidential about the trade secrets they observe in the workplace.
Closing of the conference
At last, the compliance officer holds a closing conference with the representatives of the employee and the employers. They would discuss about the findings in the workplace, possible course of actions that employer should take after the inspection which could be contesting citations and proposed penalties. Compliance officer also discusses about the employee rights and consultation.
These are various stages of the OSHA inspection that you should be aware of.
Traditional dentistry deals with oral hygiene and preventing, diagnosing and treating oral diseases, while cosmetic dentistry focuses on enhancing the appearance of person’s smile, mouth and teeth.
Technological advancements made cosmetic dental treatments more predictable and durable than in past years.
Cosmetic dentistry treatments usually includes:
Composite bonding: It helps to repair or correct the appearance of broken, chipped, decayed or discolored teeth.
- Composite material with a look of dentin and enamel is applied on to the surface or cavity of the tooth and then sculpted in to its shape, then contoured and hardened with high intensity light.
- Composite bonding results in restoration that blends with the surrounding tooth structure and the rest of natural teeth thus creating a healthy and bright smile.
Inlays/ On-lays: They are also known as indirect fillings that are made from composite materials or porcelain which are durable and lasts long to provide a way for filling teeth with any structural damage or tooth decay.
Teeth whitening: It is a common dentistry procedure often done with teeth which are stained from food and drinks, smoking and poor oral hygiene habits.
Bleaching your teeth enhances the appearance of your smile.
Smile makeover: This treatment involves the assessment of smile esthetics for improving its overall appearance.
- Requirement for other dental procedures such as dental implants, teeth whitening, dental veener’s for both the upper and lower jaw teeth is recommended in order to achieve the look you want.
Dental implants: These are artificial tooth replacements that are used as a part prosthetic dentistry to compensate tooth loss.
Dental veeners: Laminates made of porcelain or composite materials are made adhesive and bonded to the surface of tooth that needs to be repaired for cracks and chips. Dental veener’s improves severe discoloration and worn appearance of tooth.
Dental crowns: These are referred to as caps which are custom made to fit your entire tooth.
- They are usually made of porcelain or acrylic fused to metal for withstanding the pressure caused by biting.
- Crowns can be used to treat tooth that are decayed, poorly shaped, chipped or broken and have had fillings to cover spaces between teeth.
This information may help you in learning about the different types of cosmetic dentistry procedures.
Gardening requires various tools and equipment for making a beautiful space in and around your home. In this article, basic tools and equipment which are required for gardening are mentioned with their uses and importance.
It is one of the essential gardening tools used for watering the plants. Provide weed killers and also fertilizing the plants. They are usually made out different materials like brass, ceramic, copper, plastic with varied sizes ranging up to 10 liters.
These are one of the tools that are available in the form of saw and knives and used for cutting down the stems, branches and shrubs. it is also used to dig out the soil before planting seeds. Pruning saw is provided with larger teeth and rough surface and use din cutting limbs and small branches.
It is one of the essential tool in gardening which protects the hands from cuts, thorns, blisters and sunburns. Various gloves are designed based on the gardening tasks.
- Leather gloves are what which lack flexibility and protects hands from sharp objects and thorns.
- Seedling gloves are usually waterproof and provides extra ability to work effectively.
- Full length gloves are those which reach up to your elbows and protects hands from sun burn.
Through out the gardening process utility bags makes an important part which is generally used for carrying the tools while gardening. Also debris from the garden and the discarded weeds can be placed in the utility bags.
Gardening forks has many uses in gardening where it is used to dig out the soil and loosen up the compacted form of soil. Loose materials like leaves, tree clippings and compost formed by pruning can be collected using gardening forks.
One of the basic tools used in gardening for cutting down the over grown branches, dead flowers and stems.
These are narrow and long with a blade at the edge where a transplanting spade used to dig up the soil for accommodating the plant root in the soil. It helps to remove the damaged weed and doesn’t damage the adjacent plants. While fork spades can be used to pile up the loose debris such as tree clippings and leaves.
Hoes are the gardening tools used to remove weeds and digging up the soil for plantation. They come along with a long handle and a flat perpendicular blade at the end. Two types of hoes namely, draw hoes and push hoes are used – the former is allowed to move forward over the newly hoed weed and the latter is moved back wards on the ground, which is not drilled up and avoids walking over the hoed part.
Aerators are used to provide aeration to the soil by penetrating them into the earth thus increasing the uptake of oxygen, nutrients, water promoting growth of the plant.
Gardening tools and equipment constitute an important part while people opt to start a garden at their place. The above information provides with various gardening equipments and tools generally used for gardening.