Teeth help us to break, chew and digest the food particles, teeth play an important role in speech, giving smile and impact our overall health. Humans have two sets of teeth, one is primary and the other is permanent ones. Teeth begin developing in uterus, or during pregnancy. A set of 20 “milk teeth” will be there until the age of six. In the second set, humans develop 32 permanent teeth which consist of four different types. Each type of tooth has its own shape and performs a different work. Incisors, canines, premolars and molars are the four types of teeth.
The incisors are located in the front and the center of the mouth. Eight teeth (two sets of four teeth i.e., 4 in the upper and the 4 in the lower jaws) that have horizontal and sharp edges are used for biting and cutting of the food particles.
The canines are located on each side to the incisors. Four canine teeth are there which is also known as cuspids and one in each quadrant of the upper and lower jaw. These are the sharpest, stronger and larger and are used for ripping,tearing, shredding and piercing motions.
The premolars are also known as bicuspids and are located behind the canine teeth. Total eight premolars are there. Two premolar teeth are there behind each side of the canine teeth in the upper and lower jaw. These are used for chewing and grinding of food.
The molars a type of teeth with a flattened surface are used for final chewing, crushing and grinding food before swallowing. Most of the chewing occurs in the back of the jaw by the molar teeth. Three molars in each quadrant of the jaw, with a combined total of 12 are present in humans. The molars have numbered names according to their location: first molars are adjacent to second premolars towards the back of the mouth, with second and third molars following consecutively. The third molars are often called the wisdom teeth. read more…
The glow plug is a device used for assisting the engine in starting by heating it. It is a pencil like structure which has a heating element at the tip. When it is electrified, the heating element, due to its high resistance gets heated up and starts glowing and hence the term glow plug. They resemble a spark plug in size and shape.
When the engine is exposed to very cold temperatures or if the engine has cooled down due to idleness, starting it would take time because the walls of the cylinder and the cylinder heads would easily absorb the heat required for combustion. This is where the glow-plug comes to play.
The working of a diesel engine and the glow plug:
The diesel engine works by following a compression-ignition cycle. Unlike spark-ignition engines, the diesel engine ignites the fuel merely with the heat generated by pressurized air. At first, the suction stroke draws the air in, and then moves up and pressurizes it. While in the case of spark ignition (SI) engines, the compression ratio is about 6-10, the CI engine this ratio is about 16-20. At this point, fuel is injected in and due to high temperature and pressure, it burns further increasing the pressure. This forces the piston down and thus, rotation happens.
The glow-plug is placed in such a way that it can heat the engine and the surrounding areas. If the temperature if the ignition chamber is less than enough for ignition, it gets detected by sensors meant for this. The glow-plugs then switch on automatically and turn red-hot, thus heating up the chamber. When ignition temperature is achieved, the glow-plug switches off.
Types of glow-plugs:
Quick start pencil elements: This type of glow plugs are used in smaller, passenger vehicles where only less heating is needed for ignition. These reach about 1625 degrees Celsius in 30 seconds.
Slow-start pencil elements
These plugs are used in heavier vehicles which require more heating. They reach a temperature of about 2000 degrees in 30 seconds.
Issues faced by a glow plug
The common enemy of a glow plug is wear and tear. It is possible to start the engine with the glow plug on. But when the engine gets ignited, the plug also receives some heat in reverse. This reduces the life of the glow plug
Due to continuous heating, there is a possibility of oxidization. Platinum and iridium are usually used in order to overcome this.
The replacement of a glow plug usually follows no schedule. It is usually done according the suggestions given in the manual. Generally, it is good to do it for every six months or for every 60,000 miles. One of the things hat has to be taken care of, while changing the glow-plug is to ensure that the glow plug is cooled down completely.
How to replace a glow plug
First, remove the valve cover and also any cover that covers the plug. Remove the connector, and remove the glow plug using a deep socket wrench. Now screw the new glow plug all the way and put back the connector. Remember, each vehicle has its own specifications about how to replace a glow-plug. It is always best to follow them.
If you are getting your car serviced regularly, you are properly taking care of your car. Maintaining your vehicle is a routine and a difficult task to keep up with. But there are certain aspects you need to know about car maintenance and servicing. In this article, we will discuss the basic things you should know about your car servicing.
Frequency of servicing
You should know about the intervals for maintaining your car’s various parts. Often, the frequency of servicing your car is mentioned in the owners manual. However, you can obtain this information from a service provider or the Internet. You can get information online from the forums and discussion boards where car enthusiasts actively discuss models of cars and what all needs to be checked.
Selecting a reputed service provider
This is the most important factor when trying to get your car serviced. The person at the local garage may be friendly, but may not be competent enough to service your car properly and he may quote you the rates that are too high. It is advisable to go to someone who has a network of garages and guarantees you with professional service levels.
Check for your car’s tire pressure as this is one of the significant factors that affect your car’s mileage and hardly cost anything. It will not take more than five minutes to get it verified.
Often tire rotation is a neglected part of your car service. You should change your tires after every 8000 km. Never try to save money by avoiding this, as this can be dangerous.
Oil and transmission checks
One of the most important things in maintaining your car is changing the oil and checking the performance of your transmission. You may check for the oil and transmission by your own. But it should be also checked by the professional as well. This helps in identifying the problems that you might have skipped.
When you decide to hand over your car for servicing, make sure that you know at least the basics of servicing and what to expect from that servicing.
The clutch is a kind of mechanical process that transmit rotation as as engaging and disengaging. In the vehicles that have two rotating shafts clutches are useful. In the double shaft system one shaft is driven by the motor and another shaft is by another device. Here are the different types of clutches.
- Electromagnetic: The electromagnetic clutches transmit the torque mechanically and operate electrically. So these are also called as electro-mechanical clutches. Over sixty years back, these are started becoming popular. Since then there are a variety of clutch designs and applications has increased. But the basic operation not changed. For these type of clutches, no linkage is required and suitable for remote operation.
Every time the clutch is engaged, energy dissipates as heat in actuator. It results the maximum operating temperature of the electromagnetic clutch. Another major disadvantage limitation is initial cost is high.
- Safety: Also, called as torque limiter. When a machine encountered higher than the normal resistance, it allows the rotating shaft to disengage or slip.
- Cone: To transmit the torque by friction, cone clutch use two conical surfaces. These are common in some combustion engine transmissions and automobiles at once. Now these are using only in the low peripheral speed applications. The cone clutch does not require to push continuously.
- Friction: Most of the clutches for their operation finally depend on the the frictional force. These are mostly used to connect a moving member to another moving which is at different speed or stationary, to transmit power and/or to synchronize the speeds. Generally between the two members little difference is desired. These are most commonly used mechanisms. Using the surface friction, these clutches transmit torque between two faces of the clutch.
- Fluid: The fluid clutch is a hydrodynamic device. So, it is also called hydraulic clutch. Fluid coupling is used to transmit mechanical power. This is an alternative for the mechanical clutch which is an automobile transmission. It is also used in the areas where controlled start up without shock loading and variable speed operation is required. Those are like widespread application in industrial and marine drives.
There are so many other types of clutches today for cars and your garages. These include dog clutches, centrifugal clutches, overrunning clutches and so on. Each one has their unique capability to work in different areas and purposes.
Steering is just what we see in the car a wheel to operate the car directions while in driving. It is a term that applied to the collection of linkages, components etc. It will allow the vehicle to follow the desired course. In this article we will see different types of steering systems.
Rack and pinion steering:
This is the most common type of steering system used in the world at present. Because, this type of system is simplest setup to build and visualize. As the name contains, it has a rack and a pinion. The rack does not refer to a dish rack or whole box, but it is a flat and slatted surface. The pinion is a pinion and has other names like toothed wheel or free standing cog. The steering column terminus is the cog. The cog rotates when the steering wheel turns without any gear change. As the pinion meshed to the rack, its teeth induce side to side motion in the rack. Here the gear reduction is occurred. All of this thing is setup in a metal tube and the ends of the tube are protruding with the racks.
Recirculating ball steering:
This is used on many Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV) and trucks today. There is a slight difference to rack and pinion system in the wheels turning system. Recirculating ball steering is little harder even with diagrams. This mechanism contains a worm gear. Worm gear is not completely dissimilar to threaded section of a regular screw or bolt. You can found this worm inside a block. The block has teeth cut into its exterior. These teeth engage to the Pitman arm connected sector gear (referred to as a piece of gear). When the steering wheel is turned Pitman wheel make the road wheels to turn. Steering wheel shaft connect with worm gear and within the block the worm gear rotates by the shaft. The joints in the block finally make the block to move. The block motion transfers to the sector gear then to Pitman arm. It causes to turn the road wheels.
Variable ratio steering:
In the variable ratio steering system the tooth pitch is not constant, means the number of teeth per inch are not constant on rack. But in case of rack and pinion system the tooth pitch is common.
The main aim of any steering system is to ensure the vehicle or vessel wheels are pointing towards the desired directions. This is typically achieved with a series of gears, pivots and rods. One of the fundamental concepts in the steering systems is that of caster angle. With a pivot point ahead each wheel is steered. It makes the steering as self centering toward the traveling direction.
Are you planning for long drive with your family? Going on a long drive with kids can be fun but, it also involves some challenges. Here in this article, we will discuss some tips to make your journey pleasant, safe and hassle free.
1) Travel at night if you can: If you can, start your journey late afternoon. Drive for sometime and stop for having dinner. After having dinner, settle them with blanket and pillows. See to it that you make your kids wear pajamas so that they are comfortable. There are the chances that the kids will sleep. Remember, sleeping kids are happy kids and you will get several hours of driving and traveling peacefully.
2) Make sure that the place in your car are comfortable for your child: First thing you need to make sure is that the place in your car is comfortable for your kid(s). If your child is comfortable, they will never get irritated and also will not irritate you. So before beginning your journey, make your child comfortable. Add some cushions, pillows and their favorite blanket.
3) Take short breaks during the journey: Plan for short breaks throughout your journey, as kids will not sustain more than an hour or two and also need a potty break. The stops need not be long. Just 10 – 15 minutes for playing ball, going to washroom, snacking or drinking and just move around a bit will really make a difference.
4) Pack lot of healthy snacks: Taking plenty of snacks along with you will help you in going long way without taking unnecessary breaks. Deciding what to have, eating and distribution takes lot of time and breaks the monotony.
5) Pack some games, puzzles or DVD’s: The key for keeping kids busy and combat boredom is to be prepared. Pack number of games, puzzles and DVDs to make your as well as your kids journey enjoyable. Moreover, you can entertain your kids by playing their favorite movie or cartoons.
6) Stay off the phone: Refrain yourself from using cell phone for your as well as your child’s safety. If you need to answer or make a call, stop your car and use the phone. Talking on cell phone while driving can be risky as it distracts you.
Behavioral targeting ads refer to a range of techniques and technologies used by Internet advertisers and publishers. In this method, visitors’ data captured by landing pages and websites based on the ads are displayed to users. There are two types of behavioral targeting, namely, onsite behavioral targeting and network behavioral targeting. The basics of these two are same. Now we will discuss them briefly.
Onsite behavioral targeting: Behavioral targeting techniques may be applied to any type of business for advertising online. It either benefits the property or improves the visitor experience typically through the increased spending levels or increased conversion rates.
The typical approach to the onsite behavioral targeting starts by using web analytics. The visitors are split into different categories based on web analytics. The categorization is based on the persona of the visitors. This will give a starting point to the website operators about users what have to show in terms of layout, navigation, and content. Publishers use different tools to find out the persona of the visitors.
Most commonly, cookies are used in this process. For every visitor, a unique cookie is assigned and they will track the entire web journey by the user with that browser. Based on the cookie data, tools used by the publisher rules are made on what to serve to a particular user. Again, this data can be used to combine with a visitor’s purchase history and known demographic data to produce more information that helps to target even more accurately.
For example, you categorize your business website visitors into different types, such as information collectors, spenders etc. Once they visit your website, a cookie is dropped into their web browser, it will collect the data that the user uses on the browser. The data help to provide exact ads to them. If the offers are good, information collectors can become spenders. Again can make the spenders into loyal customers by cross selling and other practices.
Ad network behavioral targeting: Ad network behavioral targeting is familiar for most marketers. The way of behavioral targeting by the ad networks is different from the individual websites. Ad networks serve for many different websites with many ads. Therefore, they are able to make a different strategies for Internet users based on the demographic data. For example, a user seen on male fashion websites, business websites and football websites, the reasonable guess would be that the user is a male one.
Behavioral targeting will increase the effectiveness of the campaign. If it is done without user, knowledge is illegal in many countries as per consumer protection, data protection and privacy laws, and considered as browser security breach.
Home is a place for relaxing with friends and relatives. You spend most of your time at home, so having a beautiful home gives a pleasant experience homestay experience. Decorating home within your budget is a talent. This involves saving money at the same time giving a wonderful look to your home. There are many ideas that can decorate home with minimum expense.
Following are few inexpensive ways of decorating home:
Placing home accessories that are inexpensive: Hang picture frames on wall or mirrors on wall. This is likely to give it a good look to the room. Add some cushions to your existing sofa as this will give a new look to your sofa.
Use of existing furniture: Existing furniture can be rearranged. Move furniture to different places such as, some chairs to living room or bedroom. A piece from sofa set can be moved to bedroom or guest room remove unnecessary furniture pieces as it will leave more floor space for you. You can give a new look to your furniture simply by replacing old handles and knobs of the drawers and cupboards.
Painting walls: A new look to your home is given with just a coat of paint. It is one of the affordable techniques in decorating home. Accent wall should be painted in contrast with the furniture in the room. This can cause a focal point in the room. If your ceiling is low, play a trick with wall colors like painting vertical strips by which ceilings looks higher than it is. Similarly paint horizontal strips if the room is small. This can create feeling of space.
Lighting: Lighting is the key feature in decorating home. Replace your low power bulbs and tubes with ones with higher power. This gives your home a fresher and brighter look. You can install a pendent light in the center of your room ceiling. They bring down light to the places as require. Place accent lights on the wall to display your artwork.
Update your wall paintings and flooring: Instead of changing entire flooring, install vinyl flooring or carpets that gives your floor a new look. Choosing dark colors for floor adds interest to the room See that this kind of flooring goes with theme of your room. Give an update to your wall paintings by hanging picture and photo frames on wall.
Beautiful home is a dream of everyone but it requires huge expenses. The tips we discussed help you decorate your home with minimal expenses.
The new telematics systems number is more than doubled in the recent years from automakers. The systems like OnStar provide peace of mind in catastrophic events or crashes to the vehicle owners and their families. They are not only for emergencies, but also for conveniences (such as remote door unlocking) and offer navigation services etc. Now automakers are linking smartphone apps and telematics. These will provide the remote control access to the vehicle owners on some aspects. The telematics hardware is comes along with the vehicles and there is no need to pay any extra. Initially its services and features are for new cars. Once the trail period is completed, you need to subscribe them for yearly or monthly to continue receiving the services.
- Free telematics: Some companies are offering telematics free from charge for a first few years or months of the ownership. Latter you need to pay for that to continue. Ford with its sync system offering a subscription free limited telematics services for the first three years after you bought the car from dealer. When fuel shutoff valve activities in an accident or airbag deploys, its emergency assist automatically calls 911 through the connected bluetooth phone. Sync’s vehicle report with an online portal provides owners maintenance reminders and online diagnostic information. You can get the automated navigation to a required location, and businesses and services in an area with sync’s traffic. These systems provide conveniences and peace of mind, but you need to pay for it.
- Internet and calling: There are many companies offering Internet and call based telematics with their telematics services.
- BMW is offering an internet based Google search of services and businesses, which is tied with car’s navigation system. It also provides the information about the gas filling stations and its updated prices, stock market index, weather forecasts and traffic information. It offers a few minutes calling system, which will helpful to you in case of forget mobile or the battery is dead, for this you need to subscribe.
- The General Motors OnStar offering hands free calling embedded with cellular modem. Subscribers can purchase the prepaid talk time.
- Mercedes Benz also offering a wide range of services. Safe Ride is one of its mbrace system services. It offers to contact a taxi company or to arrange transportation when the owner feels he should not drive. When the vehicle alarm is on for more than thirty seconds, the embrace system sends an email or a text message to the vehicle owner. It also offers weather forecasts, and traffic information.
- Security services: Emergency services and the vehicle collision are the core telematics features available in all the vehicles. When the car airbags are deployed or other sensors triggered, the emergency telematics sends a message to the command center. An executive will contact through the telematics. If the person not responded or confirmed there is an accident, the command center immediately dispatches emergency response personnel.
The telematics also offer many types of other services. Those are like remote locking of door, nearby restaurants and other required services, text to speech through Bluetooth, smartphone apps integration, and so on.
The process of recruiting is selecting the right candidate for the right job. It is one of the major functions of human resource department. The process of recruitment involves various steps to hire a candidate for a particular job. This article discusses the steps involved in recruitment process.
Steps in recruiting
Following are basic steps in recruitment process and commence with:
- Identifying and defining the job: The first and important step in recruting is to identify and define the job you are hiring for. This involves posts that are to be filled, number of candidates needed, qualifications required and the job profile. This makes your recruitment process easy and simple.
- Preparing job descriptions: This step will help you in deciding the type of person you are searching for. This should include title of the job, purpose and duty of the role, job location and information of the company. Moreover, decide on the additional responsibilities and certain specific skills a person need to have.
- Advertising the job vacancy: Advertising the vacancy is a successful way of recruitment process. By advertising the job, you can reach and attract a great number of looking for the job. The ad should necessarily include name of the company, job position, duties and responsibilities, skills and experienced required, salary package and the date of interview.
- Managing the responses: After advertising your company’s vacancy, you need to manage the responses. Many applications come. It becomes a challenge for the company to select the right candidate according to job profile. So with huge responses, managing and shortlisting the best is required.
- Shortlisting of applicants/candidates: The next step in the process of recruitment is shortlisting of the applicants. This involves selecting the best among the candidates based on skills and experience required for the job, and then calling for the interview.
- Arranging the interview: For arranging interview, set a day and time. Then, through telephone or email inform them about the interview. Make a reminder call before interview if required.
- Interview and decision making: Interview is an opportunity for the company and for the applicant to know one another. As interview helps in knowing a candidate’s skills and experiences, compare it with other candidates, and decide which one will be the best match for the post. Finally, this is followed by appointment formalities.
These are the basic steps that make recruitment process easy and simple. read more…