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Feb 24 / PT

Want to Know About Types of Teeth and Their Functioning?

Teeth help us to break, chew and digest the food particles, teeth play an important role in speech, giving smile and impact our overall health. Humans have two sets of teeth, one is primary and the other is permanent ones. Teeth begin developing in uterus, or during pregnancy. A set of 20 “milk teeth” will be there until the age of six. In the second set, humans develop 32 permanent teeth which consist of four different types. Each type of tooth has its own shape and performs a different work. Incisors, canines, premolars and molars are the four types of teeth.

The incisors are located in the front and the center of the mouth. Eight teeth (two sets of four teeth i.e., 4 in the upper and the 4 in the lower jaws) that have horizontal and sharp edges are used for biting and cutting of the food particles.

The canines are located on each side to the incisors. Four canine teeth are there which is also known as cuspids and one in each quadrant of the upper and lower jaw. These are the sharpest, stronger and larger and are used for ripping,tearing, shredding and piercing motions.

The premolars are also known as bicuspids and are located behind the canine teeth. Total eight premolars are there. Two premolar teeth are there behind each side of the canine teeth in the upper and lower jaw. These are used for chewing and grinding of food.

The molars a type of teeth with a flattened surface are used for final chewing, crushing and grinding food before swallowing. Most of the chewing occurs in the back of the jaw by the molar teeth. Three molars in each quadrant of the jaw, with a combined total of 12 are present in humans. The molars have numbered names according to their location: first molars are adjacent to second premolars towards the back of the mouth, with second and third molars following consecutively. The third molars are often called the wisdom teeth. read more…

Mar 5 / PT

Online Merchandizing is Technical Behavioral Merchandizing

AdserverBehavioral merchandising is important to every business where they are able to approach their customer in a right direction. Behavioral merchandising is an art where they are observing the individual buying decisions.

Understanding the customers behavior is important, where merchandisers can easily promote their products to influence the visitors individual buying decisions and to increase the business revenue. The behavioral study considers the points like where they are coming from? searching for what?, how they make buying decisions?, etc.

Behavioral merchandising is more effective than customer segmentation, which segments the customers on the basis of their buying behaviors. This behavioral merchandising is important in maximizing the conversation rate of the visitors and websites to get the greater average order values.

Behavioral merchandising is beneficial to merchandisers to convert the website traffic into sales. Behavioral merchandising is important to merchandisers for providing average product margin to improve the cost of goods sold.

Behavioral merchandising means to customizing the contributed information to generate the sales automatically. People can call it as an intersection of retail merchandising and social networks because it creates the pleasant and interesting personal shopping experiences to visitors. read more…

Sep 4 / Miranda Lambert

Types of Shade Covers for Landscape Design of Your Garden

Would you like to spend time in your home outdoor garden? However, worried of the weather conditions summer or winter? Never bother about it. We can help you to get protection from the weather condition with some patio covers, shade sails, awnings etc. Here are some of the shade giving covers to your patio and the process of installing them in your backyard outdoor landscape.

Temporary/Permanent shade sails
Shade sails give protection from the sun especially in summer. They look like ship sail and use a flexible membrane tensioned between the anchor points. They are easy to install and are very cost effective when compared to the other shade providing covers. Shade sails come in various shapes, sizes and colors so; it is your interest to make a choice. They give stylish and fashionable look to our garden yard or landscape. Shade sails can be, temporary, or permanent. So, start choosing the one that suits your landscape design and make your living space and garden look beautiful.

Permanent patio or deck covers
To provide the permanent shade to your back yard landscape, you can use lattice with slate or if you want strong shade that can withstand to the weather and gives you good protection is using the permanent constructed shade cover with ceiling. Lattice provide semi-shade to the patio were as, ceiling provides complete shade. Under lattice, you can grow roses, grapes and other climbers, which gives good protection in summer from heat. Though permanent patio covers are expensive, they have many advantages i.e., you can have lighting, ceiling fan wire, grow small and tender plants in summer. You can use stone coverings or metal, wood covering for your patio. They are decorative or ornate deck or patio covers, which make your home and outdoor garden near the patio, look beautiful.

These are temporary and versatile shade structures for spending your leisure time in the back yard of the garden for enjoying the peace of the garden. They can be temporary or permanent i.e., some are self-stored and some are permanently arranged in the backyard landscape. These are very cheap and are a less expensive way of providing the shade to your patio or deck. Some umbrellas have push button to move it according to the sun direction. White umbrellas are good as they don’t absorb the sun heat and suits almost any type of the garden design.

Awnings are the best choice for your living space and this should be choosing as per the everyday living needs. They can be folded whenever you don’t need the shade i.e., in winter. They reduce the energy costs, harmful sunlight, rain protection etc. They come in various colors and patterns and can be easily operated by the people. These are most convenient because you will have a chance of setting the pitch and angle you want.

Sep 3 / Mervin Giles

Role Of PCB in Development of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)

CFL is an acronym for Compact Fluorescent Lamp. As the name suggests, CFL is a miniature form of florescent lamps. They were meant to replace incandescent lamps. The invention of CFL has become purely possible because of PCB technology. The size of the lamps have been reduced considerably by curling them or folding them. The ballast size has also been reduced through miniaturization of the circuit by PCB technology. The resultant is a energy efficient small CFL that operates at par with fluorescent lamps.

Working of a CFL
The most important part of a CFL is an electronic ballast. There are two types of CFL: integrated and non integrated. A non integrated CFL requires an external ballast and an integrated CFL is an in-built ballast. Reducing the size of the ballast to the extent of fitting it inside the CFL has become entirely possible because of PCB technology.

A ballast circuit of CFL consists of transformers, rectifiers, diodes, capacitors and transistors. The circuit is miniaturized and the components are fabricated on a small PCB. The transformer steps down the voltage and the rectifier converts the AC into DC and a filtering capacitor is used to filter the ripples. A small inverter circuit again converts this DC to AC with considerable frequency boost up to reduce flicker.


  • The CFL is efficient and results in considerable power saving.
  • Due to high frequency of AC used, flicker is considerably reduced.
  • The start up time is very less.
  • The weight and size of the lamps are small with regard to the illumination levels they provide.


  • In the efforts for miniaturizing the circuit used in CFLs, the Power Factor improvement is low. Hence these can affect the power quality seriously in case they are used in industrial establishments.
  • The disposal of CFL is tricky because of the presence of poisonous mercury. This can have environmental and health issues.

An overview
The CFL is so small and gives considerable amount of illumination is an technological marvel. Even greater marvel is how the size of ballast has been reduced to fit it into a casing to accommodate the size of CFL in comparable levels to incandescent lamps. CFL technology is a transition from electrical to electronic technology.
read more…

Aug 28 / Robert Earl

Causes and Symptoms of Gum Diseases

Gum diseases are the inflammation of gums which is due to the infection in gingival tissue and bone supporting the teeth. Gum diseases are due to the development of plaque in the mouth.

Causes of gum diseases

  • Build up of plaque: Plaque is the main cause of gingivitis. If untreated it leads to periodontal diseases. Bacterial growth in the mouth on reaction with mucosa and particles on mouth leads to the development of plaque.
  • Smoking: Smoking and chewing tobacco delay the healing of gum tissue.
  • Changes in hormones: Hormonal changes during pregnancy, puberty or menopause may cause gum problems. This is because during these conditions, increase in the hormonal secretions causes the blood vessels in the gum tissue to become more susceptible to bacterial growth. This leads to the development of plaque and causes gingivitis.
  • Overlapping of teeth: Overlapping of teeth, crooked teeth and rotated teeth are more susceptible for formation of plaque. This is because of the reason that the gap between the teeth are clogged with debris and is difficult to clean.
  • Poor nutrition: Less intake of water and poor nutrition leads to the formation of plaque. Dental diseases occur in candidates whose diet does not contain nutrients.
  • Illness: Diseases like HIV, cancer and diabetes also affects gum problems. Diabetes patients are more susceptible to infections. HIV and cancer reduces immunity and are susceptible to gum diseases.
  • Medication: Some medication decreases the saliva secretions that are prone to bacterial growth and in turn leads to plaque formation. Some medications like antidepressants, steroids and anticonvulsants, promote gum diseases.
  • Stress: Stress is also one of the causes of gum problems.

Candidates who have a family history of gingivitis can also have gingivitis. If gingivitis is left untreated it may lead to the periodontal diseases where the complete gingival tissue is destructed and tooth may become loose resulting the loss of teeth.

Symptoms of gum diseases
Symptoms of gum diseases vary depending on the type of gum problems whether it is gingivitis or periodontitis.

  • Symptoms of gingivitis
    • Bleeding from gums while brushing
    • Gums become red and swollen
    • Receding gums
    • Teeth appear like elongated
    • Pockets between the teeth leads to the clogging of debris.
  • Symptoms of periodontitis
    • Bad taste in mouth
    • Bad odour from mouth
    • Teeth become sensitive to hot and cold
    • Difficulty in eating and speaking as teeth become loose
    • Formation of pus between the gum and teeth
Aug 22 / Williams

Evolution of Electronics from Vacuum Tubes to ICs

Electronics can be traced back to centuries. Efforts began since that time itself not years or decades back. Many scientists have worked for the inventions in the electrical field. History of the science stood as the inspiration for the future generation innovators and scientists.

Important inventions came in this 21st century. Now, we are enjoying with the essence of the great inventions. The world is dependent on electronics today. We discuss here the evolution electronics until today. by the scientists.

Vacuum tube
The need for the detectors which can receive radio waves of Marconic’s radio was felt and for this a good rectifier to convert AC to DC. This made the invention of vacuum tube and thus how it came in to light and filled the gap.

The vacuum tube was invented by Fleming who used the principle of “Edison Effect”. The Edison effect speaks about the separation between the two conductors associated with the source of electricity. The conductors are heated to produce electric current, which means vacuum in between the conductors will act as a good carrier.

With the invention of the vacuum tube, the birth of electronics took place. Since then scientists are conducting research. The first generation computers are made of vacuum tubes and these were used during the world wars at that time for decoding the messages of enemy. These tubes are large in size and produce huge amount of heat. So, this problem led to further inventions.

The shortcomings of vacuum tubes led to the invention of diodes. These are nothing but the electrodes used in the vacuum tubes through which electric current passes. Scientists named them electrodes as diodes. In the advancement researches the diode size is reduced.

The function of a diode is to pass the electric current in only one direction and blocking the flow in other directions. Diodes are commonly used as rectifiers, logic gates, temperature measuring devices, etc. The major drawback with diodes is they get burnt when temperature increases, which leads to unintentional short circuits.

When Bell Lab’s scientists were looking for alternatives to diodes and triodes that were in use in communication technology, research and findings by Russell Ohl declared that when pure silicon is doped with impurities of penta-valent and tri-valent materials, it can be used as a two-layer PN junction diode, which led to the concept called “Transistor effect”.

Electronics that we see today took its birth with transistor effect concept. After this, electronics was identified by scientists in electrical engineering and this led the path for computing world that uses various types of computer also boosted the research.

The transistor is an electronic device that consists of three electronics and can be used as a switch or an amplifier. However, the problem with this is assembling of electronic components on a mother board. This worsens the situation when metallic contacts cross each other or are crowded. This trouble led to the integrated circuits.

Integrated circuits
Integrated circuits started evolution in the market with MSL, SSL, LSL, VLSI, ulta large-scale, system-on-a-chip, wafer scale and 3D integrated circuits. Integrated circuits find large number of applications in digital ICs like logic gates, flip flops, timers, multiplexers, microprocessors, etc. ICS are mostly used electronics today from cars to space crafts, in switching telephone circuits and data processing, digital watch and scientific calculator for performing various functions, etc.

In near future, the electronics industry will start manufacturing organic semiconductors. These are eco-friendly when compared to inorganic semiconductors, and are more efficient than inorganic electronic devices.
read more…

Aug 21 / Robert Earl

Know the Causes & Symptoms of Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is a uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells. The oral cavity comprises mouth, lips, gums, teeth and the tongue, etc.

Causes of oral cancer
Causes of oral cancer are:

1. Tobacco
Tobacco causes oral cancer. Chewing tobacco products and smoking cigarettes are responsible for oral cancer. Tobacco products cause cheeks, gums or lip cancer whereas smoking causes mouth or throat cancers. The risk of oral cancer is depends on the frequency of smoking.

2. Alcohol
Regular consumption of alcohol causes oral cancer. The risk of cancer is more with the more consumption of alcohol. Most of the oral cancers are due to consumption of alcohol and chewing tobacco. The severity of oral cancer is more in patients who has a habit of smoking and consumption of alcohol.

3. UV radiation
More exposure of sun causes lip cancer. Lip cancer mostly affects lower lip as it is more exposed to sun than upper lip. This can be prevented by using photo protective lip balms and wearing hat. The cancer risk is more in patients of sun exposure with smoking habit.

4. HPV
HPV stands for Human papilloma virus. It is responsible for oral cancer.

5. Diet
Poor diet also responsible for oral cancer. Healthy balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of oral cancer.

6. History of head & neck cancer
If you have a history of head and neck cancer. The radiation on neck and head have chances of oral cancer.

7.Poor oral hygiene
Poor oral hygiene is responsible for oral cancer. Improper brushing and flossing leads to oral problems. This also increases the chances of getting oral cancer. This can be reduced by maintaining oral hygiene.

8. Immuno suppressant Drugs
Candidate using immuno suppressant drugs increases the risk of oral cancer as these increases the sensitivity to UV ration.

9. Dentures
Improper fitting of dentures or improper cleaning of dentures irritates the mouth. If candidate with dentures chew tobacco products,some particles of it may remain on mouth and increases the risk of oral cancer.

10. Mouth washes
Frequent usage of mouth washes containing high alcoholic content causes oral cancer. Increased risk in frequent usage of mouth washes of candidates having a habit of smoking.

Symptoms of oral cancer:

  • White or red color patches on mouth, lips, tongue that lasts for several days
  • A sore on lip that does not heal
  • Bleeding from lesion in oral cavity
  • Irritation or pain on lesion
  • Poor coordination among teeth
  • Difficulty in swallowing and speaking
  • Feeling of food stuck on throat
  • Numbness on tongue
  • Restrictions in jaw movements and tongue
  • Lumps or tumors on mouth
  • Thickening of the inner side of cheeks
  • Difficulty in wearing dentures
Aug 20 / Leonard Nimoy

Types of Car Insurance Coverages

If you are planning for an insurance coverage for your car, you must first know the types of insurances that are available for car. Based on the requirements of your car you have to choose the type of insurance that is needed. These car insurances will cover you and your car in different ways. Some of the types of car insurances are:

Liability insurance
This insurance will cover the damage or injuries made by you through a car accident. This insurance will help you by covering the cost of damage made. This is one of the best way to protect yourself from financial loss. There are two types of liability coverage insurances such as:

  • Property damage insurance: If you are the fault at the seen of accident, then this policy pays if any damage has been done to the car. This insurance usually repairs or replaces the damaged part. Damaged property such as vehicles, lamppost, house, etc. are covered in this insurance.
  • Bodily injury insurance (BIL): It is also called as bodily injury liability coverage. This insurance protects you when you are cause for the physical injury of the people. It usually covers medical expenses, lost income from time off work, nursing care for long-term, pain and suffering, etc. This won’t pay if any injury has happened to you.

Personal injury protection (PIP)
This insurance will cover you and the passengers that were involved in an accident. It doesn’t matter who is at fault. It is also called as no-fault insurance. This insurance will also pay for the loss of wages. This also helps in a situation when the expenses exceed the health insurance policy. Along with PIP if you have liability coverage then it benefits you a lot.

Collision coverage
Collision coverage will entirely payoff for your car when it is damaged or meets with an accident. It also pays for the repair of the car. If your car is too old then it may not be eligible for the collision coverage.

These are the three major car insurance coverages that will help you and your car when you met with an accident.
read more…

Jul 31 / Miranda Lambert

Terms to Know in Website Monitoring

If you are performing website monitoring or if you own a website, you should be familiar with some terms that are used often when it comes to website monitoring. Listed here are terms that you need to know.

1. Uptime
This is very important term and this plays a major role in overall website performance. Uptime of a site describes the number which shows the duration of a website that is available to view. Uptime of a website is important because it helps you get a good number of visitors. So, it is essential for the owner of the website to take care of the uptime every time. Maintain at least 99.9% up time proper maintenance because you or your no hosting company can’t reach 100% uptime. For maintaining a good uptime, you must choose a good web hosting company or should have good website maintenance.

2. Page speed
Page speed is nothing but page load time. It refers to loading time of a site or page on a site. It is stated as lapsed time between user’s request and the page that is fully given by the browser. This should be less than three seconds. If it is more, visitors get frustrated and can’t wait for the response to get for a long time. Research shows that any website that is loading below three seconds is good and this will help grow traffic to the site. Many sites that have more loading time i.e., more than 3 seconds will have problems with their site. So, check this factor and if it is more correct it. Page speed matters because it will affect or effect the conversion rate.

3. Functionality
Check whether the functions of your website are working properly. Website functionality includes having features such as contact forms, registration forms, sign-up forms etc. This is a must-have feature, if you are providing user with sign-ups and others as stated. If they are not working properly, check the problem yourself and rectify or else handle it to technical team of your website.

4. Performance:
The aforesaid factors affect the performance of a website. The overall performance depends on the uptime, page speed of a site. Therefore, understand the problems and try to improve the performance through a proper maintenance of a website.

These are the major terms or factors that a website owner or a hosting company must consider while monitoring a website.
read more…

Jul 31 / Leonard Nimoy

Difference Between Language, Communication and Speech

How is language, communication and speech different from each other? Are they same? Is there any difference? Yes, there is a difference between the three, but they have something in common that connects them to one another. Language involves what we speak, write, read, understand and to communicate ideas. Communication refers to conveying a message, and speech refers to the sounds that make up words and sentences.

To know more about the differences between language, communication and speech, read the article.

Language is using words or phrases and forming sentences to communicate with people. It is a form of communication which can be in the form of speaking or writing or an non-verbal method of communication. Different countries will have different language which resembles their culture and tradition.

It is designed in the way that it is having the clarity and specificity. Language will also be in the form of gestures through which some people will communicate especially who can’t speak. Language and communication are related to one another and they can’t be separated. Language is a combination of syntax, semantics, phonetics, pragmatics, etc. This finally relates to communication.

Communication is exchange of information between the people through speaking, writing or with the help of some other medium. If you are perfect in language you can communicate easily. For communicating you don’t need a speech just language is enough. Communication is a source of language. Communication is used in many different ways by the people. It is possible through messages, calls, etc. It also includes non-verbal acts such as gestures, expressions, pictures, etc. To be a best communicator you must have grip and command on the language you are speaking or writing. Then it will be easy for the people to understand your view and what you are trying to convey them.

The major difference between communication and language is seen in sense of the language used. Language is used for exchanging information were as communication goes beyond the language like signs, gestures, as stated.

It is the oral or verbal form of communicating with people. It also refers to sounds that come from mouth in the form of words. It includes voice, articulation and fluency. These are stated under. The process of speech is complicated when studying the sequence and scope.

Articulation deals with how sounds of the speech are made when a person is speaking and for this voice is important. Voice is nothing but, using breathing and vocal folds in producing sound. Speech should have the rhythm or flow which comes with fluency.
read more…

Jul 30 / Miranda Lambert

Porcelain Filling Dentistry and Their Benefits

Porcelain filling filling in dentistry aims to restore and the natural look and fill the deficit of teeth.

Porcelain filling even advantageous over composite fillings, and are durable, stronger and natural looking. Earlier, porcelain filling was used only for front teeth but now this is used almost in all the areas of preparing the fillings like inlays, outlays and crowns. This filling uses advanced technologies, which makes the resin harden the surface of the teeth so that they look natural and healthy.

This treatment is similar to the traditional filling methods and requires at least two visits to the dentists to get ready for the filling. Porcelain is a glass material composed of oxygen and the silicon and these are better than composite because teeth don’t get stained, or you don’t have any dis-coloration problems as is in case composite filling.

How the treatment is done?
As it takes at least two visits to the dentist in first visit the dentist will drill the area which is infected with cavities then takes the impressions of teeth and then fills it with temporary fillings so that you will be comfortable for second visit. Now the impressions that is taken will be sent to the lab by the dentist to get the customized porcelain fillings. After the dentist receives the fillings he/she will bond the fillings on your teeth where drilling is done on the second visit. This is how the treatment is carried out.

Benefits of porcelain fillings
Both porcelain and composite fillings bring benefits to the patients. But porcelain filling has added advantages when compared to composite fillings. Some of them are:

  • These filling is more durable when compared to all other cavity fillings – nearly 30 years that no other cavity fillings can replace this fillings in this point. All other fillings last 7-10 years.
  • Porcelain fillings bond the teeth easily and get strengthened as it doesn’t require more tooth structure to be removed.
  • They give a more natural look than all other fillings do and don’t make you appear as if you have fillings in your mouth. With this, you fill have a great look and smile with your teeth.
  • This fillings don’t get stained or discolored as composite fillings.

With these major advantages, over all other fillings, you can opt for porcelain fillings compared to all other fillings today even if the filling is costlier when compared to metal fillings. They will save the money in future if you invest some more now. So, you don’t have to worry with this filling as they give you long term benefits.
read more…

Jul 29 / Miranda Lambert

Qualification and Responsibilities of a Lawyer

Qualification to become a lawyer

Education qualifications:
www.kmpetersonlaw.netThe qualification and the requirements to become a lawyer vary from country to country. Generally, the basic qualification required to become a lawyer is graduation from high school, bachelor’s degree and the candidates need to pass law entrance exam from a law university. To obtain a law degree the candidate should study three courses. If you purse your graduation for 3 years in full-time then you will be called as a “Bar” that means the person is fully qualified lawyer now and also be able to practice law in their jurisdiction. To practice law you must have law degree along with the license in many countries. There will not be any special training for the candidates. When you are job, you will be able to get training.

Internships and volunteer programs:
Apart from this qualification, the candidates who completed the internship with graduation or under graduation degree will be preferred most because they will have some experience. Through some competitive exams, the candidates will be hired and the organizations hire volunteer lawyers through some volunteer programs.

Short-term contracts:
You can apply for contract basis work in the judiciary like if the full time lawyers are on leave then there will be a chance to work in their place for a period. During this time, you will have a chance to make contacts with the other attorneys who can help you in future. These contacts with the other lawyers help you to know the updated information regarding the law and job openings etc.
With these qualifications and contacts, it will make easy for you to become a lawyer or an attorney.

Responsibilities that a lawyer should carry out:

  • Communicate with the clients and know their case. For this the attorney must have a conference or meeting with the clients.
  • After the case study, the attorney should give advices to the client.
  • Maintain the confidentiality of the client matters.
  • Study the client cases deeply, assist the case, and strengthen it.
  • Legal advices should be provided by the attorney to the clients.
  • Counsel your clients and make them feel comfortable about the case.
  • The attorney should not have any personal relations with their clients and they should be loyal.

In order to handle all this responsibilities the lawyer must have the requirements like a good research skills, drafting skills, punctual, thinking ability, must have the legal knowledge etc.
With this qualification and skills, you can have a good position as a lawyer in the judiciary.