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Feb 24 / PT

Want to Know About Types of Teeth and Their Functioning?

Teeth help us to break, chew and digest the food particles, teeth play an important role in speech, giving smile and impact our overall health. Humans have two sets of teeth, one is primary and the other is permanent ones. Teeth begin developing in uterus, or during pregnancy. A set of 20 “milk teeth” will be there until the age of six. In the second set, humans develop 32 permanent teeth which consist of four different types. Each type of tooth has its own shape and performs a different work. Incisors, canines, premolars and molars are the four types of teeth.

The incisors are located in the front and the center of the mouth. Eight teeth (two sets of four teeth i.e., 4 in the upper and the 4 in the lower jaws) that have horizontal and sharp edges are used for biting and cutting of the food particles.

The canines are located on each side to the incisors. Four canine teeth are there which is also known as cuspids and one in each quadrant of the upper and lower jaw. These are the sharpest, stronger and larger and are used for ripping,tearing, shredding and piercing motions.

The premolars are also known as bicuspids and are located behind the canine teeth. Total eight premolars are there. Two premolar teeth are there behind each side of the canine teeth in the upper and lower jaw. These are used for chewing and grinding of food.

The molars a type of teeth with a flattened surface are used for final chewing, crushing and grinding food before swallowing. Most of the chewing occurs in the back of the jaw by the molar teeth. Three molars in each quadrant of the jaw, with a combined total of 12 are present in humans. The molars have numbered names according to their location: first molars are adjacent to second premolars towards the back of the mouth, with second and third molars following consecutively. The third molars are often called the wisdom teeth. read more…

Mar 5 / PT

Online Merchandizing is Technical Behavioral Merchandizing

AdserverBehavioral merchandising is important to every business where they are able to approach their customer in a right direction. Behavioral merchandising is an art where they are observing the individual buying decisions.

Understanding the customers behavior is important, where merchandisers can easily promote their products to influence the visitors individual buying decisions and to increase the business revenue. The behavioral study considers the points like where they are coming from? searching for what?, how they make buying decisions?, etc.

Behavioral merchandising is more effective than customer segmentation, which segments the customers on the basis of their buying behaviors. This behavioral merchandising is important in maximizing the conversation rate of the visitors and websites to get the greater average order values.

Behavioral merchandising is beneficial to merchandisers to convert the website traffic into sales. Behavioral merchandising is important to merchandisers for providing average product margin to improve the cost of goods sold.

Behavioral merchandising means to customizing the contributed information to generate the sales automatically. People can call it as an intersection of retail merchandising and social networks because it creates the pleasant and interesting personal shopping experiences to visitors. read more…

Oct 21 / Debbie Harry

Overview of Child Labor Laws

Along with employment labor laws there are certain laws for children and their employment. So, would you like to know what are the laws that child have and their regulations and restrictions? Then, read this article.

Child labor laws
Child labor laws are existed for protecting the rights of the children under the age of 18 years. This law especially focuses on child’s age of working and the kind of jobs they can do. There are several regulations and restrictions for the child to work in a organization. So, every business owner must know this facts or laws to apply them in their business and protect the employees and interests of their business. The child labor laws varies from country to country and state to state. Some of the restrictions that children have are listed below.

Job restrictions for child according to child labor laws

  • Children under 14-15 years of age: In some countries, according to federal labor laws, if the children is in the schooling year, the working hours are limited to 3 hours a day and 18 hours a week and when there is no school they can work for 8 hours a day. There are also some restrictions or limits in working time, i.e., they shouldn’t work after 7 p.m. during schooling days and after 9 p.m in non-schooling days. These timings and working hours may vary for every country or state, so check what you state child labor laws says and follow that accordingly. And this children are opt only for few jobs.
  • Children between 16-17 years of age: The children under this age can be employed in any kind of job that are declared in the labor laws of your state or country and 4 hours per day on schooling days and 8 hours in non-schooling days.
  • Children of 18 years age: Once the children reached 18 they are not restricted to certain jobs by the labor laws. So, they can opt for their own job.

Note: This law may vary from state to state and country to country. So, it is better to check your state or country child labor laws before you proceed.


  • Youth minimum age: The youth under the 20 years of age are given less wages for a limited period of time after the first employment and for the eligible workers the wage can be increased for a period of time that is stated.
  • Employment or age certificates: In some countries children under eighteen years should get some employment age or certificates if they want to work legally. This form will be available at schools or else they can get at the state department of labor.

So, if you are a business owner check what your state or country labor laws say regarding child labors age and working restrictions and try to implement them in your organization.
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Oct 6 / Robert Earl

Minimize Website Downtime by Website Monitoring

Worried about your website’s downtime? At a certain point of time every website faces this issue, and it becomes a major drawback to your website. But you don’t need to frustrate with this issue because you have a solution here. To minimize your websites downtime, you just need to do a few things, which brings your website to live back.

Check for security issues
Start by checking every nook and corner of your website. Check for hacking or other problems in your website. If any unnecessary activities were found in your website try to resolve those problems on your own or with the help of your website monitoring service provider. Meanwhile inform your website visitors about the problem that your website is facing.

Regular software updates
Now-a-days hacking attacks have become common online as most servers use public Internet. This is because of lack of proper maintenance of your website software. So, in order to make your website secure, check for the latest updates of all your software related and upgrade them along with the plugins.

Use strong passwords
On more solution to protect your website from attacks is using strong passwords that are un-breakable. Make sure that your password is complicated so that, you protect your site against password hacking attacks for acquiring your valuable information.

Manage resources on your server
Managing resource is very important for a website to run properly. Resources of your sever will be limited as per the type of server you are having that can be of any kind like shared or dedicated.

Whether it may be any kind of server you need to manage the resources with respect to disk space, RAM and CPU. These are the major things and if disk space or the RAM are out of space or if there are any power issues with CPU, your website performance degrades and start hanging. Therefore, check for the bottleneck and manage them by taking necessary actions.

Take the help of your website monitoring service
If you are not having the technical skills to work on your website, take the help of a website monitoring service. They will work more efficiently to resolve your websites problem especially during the downtime of your website and intimate you as soon as your website is having an issue. For this, you need to hire a good and reputed website monitoring service provider for your website.

This all steps will help you in reducing the downtime of your website. Getting notified and solving, the issue at the early stage is important. This will make your website function properly and brings it to the previous stage.
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Sep 29 / Miranda Lambert

Explaining Basic Components of an Automobile Engine

Engine is heart of an automotive and generates the necessary power required for operation of vehicle. While going for a purchase, engine type and parameters are the most sought after factors affecting the choice of a vehicle. When a person does research for purchasing a car, he comes across various terms related to engine components which he can not understand. Understanding these terms is important for purchasing a car. These decide the operation of a vehicle. An effort has been put up here to acquaint the car aspirants with terminology related to engines.

It is the most basic part of an engine. An engine can not be made without it. It provides space for the movement of piston. The charge is sucked into the cylinders, they are compressed, combusted and the exhaust of flue gases is done from here. It is generally made up if high grade cast iron. A cylinder is contained in a cylinder block. This block also contains water jackets for cooling purpose.

Piston is a cylindrical structure in the cylinder. It’s one side is made fit against the walls of the cylinder. Piston is connected to the connecting rod that connects crankshaft. The movement of piston creates pressure differences for intake and exhaust of charge. Piston action compresses the charge and generates power during the power stroke.

Compression rings
Compression rings are placed in gaps of the piston near the piston head. They close the piston against the cylinder walls firmly so that gases do not leak and necessary pressure is maintained. This particularly is important during the compression stroke when the charge is compressed.

An engine is not a continuously power producing component. It provides power only during the power stroke. The other three strokes do not generate any power. The power stored during the power stroke is stored in the flywheel which is used to power the piston operations during the idle strokes. The back surface of a flywheel is used as pressure surface for the clutch plate.

The crankcase contains camshaft and crankshaft. It holds lubricating oil reservoir, oil pump, oil filter, starting motor and ignition components like spark plug and ignition coils. The upper part of the case is connected to the cylinder block.

A crankshaft is an important part of the engine. It is connected with the piston via connecting rod. It is responsible for conversion of reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion of the flywheel.

Top dead center (TDC) and Bottom dead center (BDC)
In the cylinder, during a stroke, when the piston is at the topmost position, it is said to be at Top dead center. In a similar fashion, when a piston is at the lowermost portion of a cylinder, the piston is said to be at the Bottom dead center.

It refers to the removal of exhaust and flue gases from the cylinder so that fresh charge can be introduced into the cylinder. Sometimes, pumps and compressors have to be employed to force the gases out of the cylinder.

Though the list is not exhaustive and there are numerous components in an engine, some of the important ones are covered here for the information purpose.
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Sep 19 / Miranda Lambert

OSHA: All About Fire Hazard Exit Routes

Fire hazards at workplace are unprecedented occurrences and can happen anytime because of anyone’s fault. Fire fighting systems may help in bringing down the hazard but do not offer protection to employees in case hazard goes uncontrollable. Exit routes are best and are an effective resort in case of fire hazards. They ensure adequate protection to the employee in the event of fire hazards. Hence, fire exits are very important when it comes to safety of the employees. Therefore their design, construction and maintenance play a significant role in ensuring that they do not compromise the safety of employees during evacuation.

Design and construction requirements for exit route
OSHA provide guidelines for the construction and design of the exit routes. These guidelines have been prepared taking into consideration various factors and ensure maximum safety to the employees in case of a fire hazard. There should be at least two exit routes. One is also acceptable but make sure that all employees evacuate safely in due time. Design and construction requirements as issued by OSHA are:

  • Exit routes must be permanent parts of the workplace and they should be spacious enough to accommodate all the employees. They should lead to a safe area. Exit routes that go further the discharge point should have signs showing the discharge point.
  • The exit routes should not have a decreasing profile from mouth to end and they should not be locked or blocked when employees are inside. They should contain side hinged doors that swing open in the direction of exit.
  • The exit route should be well illuminated. They should be at least 7 feet 6 inches in height and 28 inches in width. Presence of objects that reduce its width are unacceptable. It should be made up of non flammable material with fire resistance rating of at least one hour.
  • Proper safety to the employees should be ensured in the exit from slips and falls through guardrails and covering them in case of snow and ice deposition.

Maintenance, safeguarding and operational features for exit routes
The fire exits should be ensured to be in a working condition so that they satisfy their basic utility in case of need. OSHA provides guidelines for maintenance, safeguarding and operational features of the exit routes. They are as follows:

  • The exit routes should not contain any highly flammable and explosive material and the pathway should not be obstructed by objects and materials. Route to fire exits should not pass through high hazard area.
  • Make sure that the safeguards are in working order and the pathways are well illuminated.
  • Proper signs should be displayed for identification purposes and the alarm emergency systems should be provided for intimation in case the employees can not interpret the hazard.

A fire exit should be constructed as per the guidelines of OSHA and regular maintenance of the exit routes should be carried out to ensure that they are in working condition. A fire exit that cannot provide safety by virtue of its construction or one that is not maintained well cannot provide optimum safety to employees in case of hazards and their presence is of little significance when it comes to safety of employees from fire hazards.
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Sep 4 / Miranda Lambert

Types of Shade Covers for Landscape Design of Your Garden

Would you like to spend time in your home outdoor garden? However, worried of the weather conditions summer or winter? Never bother about it. We can help you to get protection from the weather condition with some patio covers, shade sails, awnings etc. Here are some of the shade giving covers to your patio and the process of installing them in your backyard outdoor landscape.

Temporary/Permanent shade sails
miniature-gardening.comShade sails give protection from the sun especially in summer. They look like ship sail and use a flexible membrane tensioned between the anchor points. They are easy to install and are very cost effective when compared to the other shade providing covers. Shade sails come in various shapes, sizes and colors so; it is your interest to make a choice. They give stylish and fashionable look to our garden yard or landscape. Shade sails can be, temporary, or permanent. So, start choosing the one that suits your landscape design and make your living space and garden look beautiful.

Permanent patio or deck covers
To provide the permanent shade to your back yard landscape, you can use lattice with slate or if you want strong shade that can withstand to the weather and gives you good protection is using the permanent constructed shade cover with ceiling. Lattice provide semi-shade to the patio were as, ceiling provides complete shade. Under lattice, you can grow roses, grapes and other climbers, which gives good protection in summer from heat. Though permanent patio covers are expensive, they have many advantages i.e., you can have lighting, ceiling fan wire, grow small and tender plants in summer. You can use stone coverings or metal, wood covering for your patio. They are decorative or ornate deck or patio covers, which make your home and outdoor garden near the patio, look beautiful.

These are temporary and versatile shade structures for spending your leisure time in the back yard of the garden for enjoying the peace of the garden. They can be temporary or permanent i.e., some are self-stored and some are permanently arranged in the backyard landscape. These are very cheap and are a less expensive way of providing the shade to your patio or deck. Some umbrellas have push button to move it according to the sun direction. White umbrellas are good as they don’t absorb the sun heat and suits almost any type of the garden design.

Awnings are the best choice for your living space and this should be choosing as per the everyday living needs. They can be folded whenever you don’t need the shade i.e., in winter. They reduce the energy costs, harmful sunlight, rain protection etc. They come in various colors and patterns and can be easily operated by the people. These are most convenient because you will have a chance of setting the pitch and angle you want.

Sep 3 / Mervin Giles

Role Of PCB in Development of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)

CFL is an acronym for Compact Fluorescent Lamp. As the name suggests, CFL is a miniature form of florescent lamps. They were meant to replace incandescent lamps. The invention of CFL has become purely possible because of PCB technology. The size of the lamps have been reduced considerably by curling them or folding them. The ballast size has also been reduced through miniaturization of the circuit by PCB technology. The resultant is a energy efficient small CFL that operates at par with fluorescent lamps.

Working of a CFL
The most important part of a CFL is an electronic ballast. There are two types of CFL: integrated and non integrated. A non integrated CFL requires an external ballast and an integrated CFL is an in-built ballast. Reducing the size of the ballast to the extent of fitting it inside the CFL has become entirely possible because of PCB technology.

A ballast circuit of CFL consists of transformers, rectifiers, diodes, capacitors and transistors. The circuit is miniaturized and the components are fabricated on a small PCB. The transformer steps down the voltage and the rectifier converts the AC into DC and a filtering capacitor is used to filter the ripples. A small inverter circuit again converts this DC to AC with considerable frequency boost up to reduce flicker.


  • The CFL is efficient and results in considerable power saving.
  • Due to high frequency of AC used, flicker is considerably reduced.
  • The start up time is very less.
  • The weight and size of the lamps are small with regard to the illumination levels they provide.


  • In the efforts for miniaturizing the circuit used in CFLs, the Power Factor improvement is low. Hence these can affect the power quality seriously in case they are used in industrial establishments.
  • The disposal of CFL is tricky because of the presence of poisonous mercury. This can have environmental and health issues.

An overview
The CFL is so small and gives considerable amount of illumination is an technological marvel. Even greater marvel is how the size of ballast has been reduced to fit it into a casing to accommodate the size of CFL in comparable levels to incandescent lamps. CFL technology is a transition from electrical to electronic technology.
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Aug 28 / Robert Earl

Causes and Symptoms of Gum Diseases

Gum diseases are the inflammation of gums which is due to the infection in gingival tissue and bone supporting the teeth. Gum diseases are due to the development of plaque in the mouth.

Causes of gum diseases

  • Build up of plaque: Plaque is the main cause of gingivitis. If untreated it leads to periodontal diseases. Bacterial growth in the mouth on reaction with mucosa and particles on mouth leads to the development of plaque.
  • Smoking: Smoking and chewing tobacco delay the healing of gum tissue.
  • Changes in hormones: Hormonal changes during pregnancy, puberty or menopause may cause gum problems. This is because during these conditions, increase in the hormonal secretions causes the blood vessels in the gum tissue to become more susceptible to bacterial growth. This leads to the development of plaque and causes gingivitis.
  • Overlapping of teeth: Overlapping of teeth, crooked teeth and rotated teeth are more susceptible for formation of plaque. This is because of the reason that the gap between the teeth are clogged with debris and is difficult to clean.
  • Poor nutrition: Less intake of water and poor nutrition leads to the formation of plaque. Dental diseases occur in candidates whose diet does not contain nutrients.
  • Illness: Diseases like HIV, cancer and diabetes also affects gum problems. Diabetes patients are more susceptible to infections. HIV and cancer reduces immunity and are susceptible to gum diseases.
  • Medication: Some medication decreases the saliva secretions that are prone to bacterial growth and in turn leads to plaque formation. Some medications like antidepressants, steroids and anticonvulsants, promote gum diseases.
  • Stress: Stress is also one of the causes of gum problems.

Candidates who have a family history of gingivitis can also have gingivitis. If gingivitis is left untreated it may lead to the periodontal diseases where the complete gingival tissue is destructed and tooth may become loose resulting the loss of teeth.

Symptoms of gum diseases
Symptoms of gum diseases vary depending on the type of gum problems whether it is gingivitis or periodontitis.

  • Symptoms of gingivitis
    • Bleeding from gums while brushing
    • Gums become red and swollen
    • Receding gums
    • Teeth appear like elongated
    • Pockets between the teeth leads to the clogging of debris.
  • Symptoms of periodontitis
    • Bad taste in mouth
    • Bad odour from mouth
    • Teeth become sensitive to hot and cold
    • Difficulty in eating and speaking as teeth become loose
    • Formation of pus between the gum and teeth
Aug 22 / Williams

Evolution of Electronics from Vacuum Tubes to ICs

Electronics can be traced back to centuries. Efforts began since that time itself not years or decades back. Many scientists have worked for the inventions in the electrical field. History of the science stood as the inspiration for the future generation innovators and scientists.

Important inventions came in this 21st century. Now, we are enjoying with the essence of the great inventions. The world is dependent on electronics today. We discuss here the evolution electronics until today. by the scientists.

Vacuum tube
The need for the detectors which can receive radio waves of Marconic’s radio was felt and for this a good rectifier to convert AC to DC. This made the invention of vacuum tube and thus how it came in to light and filled the gap.

The vacuum tube was invented by Fleming who used the principle of “Edison Effect”. The Edison effect speaks about the separation between the two conductors associated with the source of electricity. The conductors are heated to produce electric current, which means vacuum in between the conductors will act as a good carrier.

With the invention of the vacuum tube, the birth of electronics took place. Since then scientists are conducting research. The first generation computers are made of vacuum tubes and these were used during the world wars at that time for decoding the messages of enemy. These tubes are large in size and produce huge amount of heat. So, this problem led to further inventions.

The shortcomings of vacuum tubes led to the invention of diodes. These are nothing but the electrodes used in the vacuum tubes through which electric current passes. Scientists named them electrodes as diodes. In the advancement researches the diode size is reduced.

The function of a diode is to pass the electric current in only one direction and blocking the flow in other directions. Diodes are commonly used as rectifiers, logic gates, temperature measuring devices, etc. The major drawback with diodes is they get burnt when temperature increases, which leads to unintentional short circuits.

When Bell Lab’s scientists were looking for alternatives to diodes and triodes that were in use in communication technology, research and findings by Russell Ohl declared that when pure silicon is doped with impurities of penta-valent and tri-valent materials, it can be used as a two-layer PN junction diode, which led to the concept called “Transistor effect”.

Electronics that we see today took its birth with transistor effect concept. After this, electronics was identified by scientists in electrical engineering and this led the path for computing world that uses various types of computer also boosted the research.

The transistor is an electronic device that consists of three electronics and can be used as a switch or an amplifier. However, the problem with this is assembling of electronic components on a mother board. This worsens the situation when metallic contacts cross each other or are crowded. This trouble led to the integrated circuits.

Integrated circuits
Integrated circuits started evolution in the market with MSL, SSL, LSL, VLSI, ulta large-scale, system-on-a-chip, wafer scale and 3D integrated circuits. Integrated circuits find large number of applications in digital ICs like logic gates, flip flops, timers, multiplexers, microprocessors, etc. ICS are mostly used electronics today from cars to space crafts, in switching telephone circuits and data processing, digital watch and scientific calculator for performing various functions, etc.

In near future, the electronics industry will start manufacturing organic semiconductors. These are eco-friendly when compared to inorganic semiconductors, and are more efficient than inorganic electronic devices.
read more…

Aug 21 / Robert Earl

Know the Causes & Symptoms of Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is a uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells. The oral cavity comprises mouth, lips, gums, teeth and the tongue, etc.

Causes of oral cancer
Causes of oral cancer are:

1. Tobacco
Tobacco causes oral cancer. Chewing tobacco products and smoking cigarettes are responsible for oral cancer. Tobacco products cause cheeks, gums or lip cancer whereas smoking causes mouth or throat cancers. The risk of oral cancer is depends on the frequency of smoking.

2. Alcohol
Regular consumption of alcohol causes oral cancer. The risk of cancer is more with the more consumption of alcohol. Most of the oral cancers are due to consumption of alcohol and chewing tobacco. The severity of oral cancer is more in patients who has a habit of smoking and consumption of alcohol.

3. UV radiation
More exposure of sun causes lip cancer. Lip cancer mostly affects lower lip as it is more exposed to sun than upper lip. This can be prevented by using photo protective lip balms and wearing hat. The cancer risk is more in patients of sun exposure with smoking habit.

4. HPV
HPV stands for Human papilloma virus. It is responsible for oral cancer.

5. Diet
Poor diet also responsible for oral cancer. Healthy balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of oral cancer.

6. History of head & neck cancer
If you have a history of head and neck cancer. The radiation on neck and head have chances of oral cancer.

7.Poor oral hygiene
Poor oral hygiene is responsible for oral cancer. Improper brushing and flossing leads to oral problems. This also increases the chances of getting oral cancer. This can be reduced by maintaining oral hygiene.

8. Immuno suppressant Drugs
Candidate using immuno suppressant drugs increases the risk of oral cancer as these increases the sensitivity to UV ration.

9. Dentures
Improper fitting of dentures or improper cleaning of dentures irritates the mouth. If candidate with dentures chew tobacco products,some particles of it may remain on mouth and increases the risk of oral cancer.

10. Mouth washes
Frequent usage of mouth washes containing high alcoholic content causes oral cancer. Increased risk in frequent usage of mouth washes of candidates having a habit of smoking.

Symptoms of oral cancer:

  • White or red color patches on mouth, lips, tongue that lasts for several days
  • A sore on lip that does not heal
  • Bleeding from lesion in oral cavity
  • Irritation or pain on lesion
  • Poor coordination among teeth
  • Difficulty in swallowing and speaking
  • Feeling of food stuck on throat
  • Numbness on tongue
  • Restrictions in jaw movements and tongue
  • Lumps or tumors on mouth
  • Thickening of the inner side of cheeks
  • Difficulty in wearing dentures
Aug 20 / Leonard Nimoy

Types of Car Insurance Coverages

If you are planning for an insurance coverage for your car, you must first know the types of insurances that are available for car. Based on the requirements of your car you have to choose the type of insurance that is needed. These car insurances will cover you and your car in different ways. Some of the types of car insurances are:

Liability insurance
This insurance will cover the damage or injuries made by you through a car accident. This insurance will help you by covering the cost of damage made. This is one of the best way to protect yourself from financial loss. There are two types of liability coverage insurances such as:

  • Property damage insurance: If you are the fault at the seen of accident, then this policy pays if any damage has been done to the car. This insurance usually repairs or replaces the damaged part. Damaged property such as vehicles, lamppost, house, etc. are covered in this insurance.
  • Bodily injury insurance (BIL): It is also called as bodily injury liability coverage. This insurance protects you when you are cause for the physical injury of the people. It usually covers medical expenses, lost income from time off work, nursing care for long-term, pain and suffering, etc. This won’t pay if any injury has happened to you.

Personal injury protection (PIP)
This insurance will cover you and the passengers that were involved in an accident. It doesn’t matter who is at fault. It is also called as no-fault insurance. This insurance will also pay for the loss of wages. This also helps in a situation when the expenses exceed the health insurance policy. Along with PIP if you have liability coverage then it benefits you a lot.

Collision coverage
Collision coverage will entirely payoff for your car when it is damaged or meets with an accident. It also pays for the repair of the car. If your car is too old then it may not be eligible for the collision coverage.

These are the three major car insurance coverages that will help you and your car when you met with an accident.
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