Teeth help us to break, chew and digest the food particles, teeth play an important role in speech, giving smile and impact our overall health. Humans have two sets of teeth, one is primary and the other is permanent ones. Teeth begin developing in uterus, or during pregnancy. A set of 20 “milk teeth” will be there until the age of six. In the second set, humans develop 32 permanent teeth which consist of four different types. Each type of tooth has its own shape and performs a different work. Incisors, canines, premolars and molars are the four types of teeth.
The incisors are located in the front and the center of the mouth. Eight teeth (two sets of four teeth i.e., 4 in the upper and the 4 in the lower jaws) that have horizontal and sharp edges are used for biting and cutting of the food particles.
The canines are located on each side to the incisors. Four canine teeth are there which is also known as cuspids and one in each quadrant of the upper and lower jaw. These are the sharpest, stronger and larger and are used for ripping,tearing, shredding and piercing motions.
The premolars are also known as bicuspids and are located behind the canine teeth. Total eight premolars are there. Two premolar teeth are there behind each side of the canine teeth in the upper and lower jaw. These are used for chewing and grinding of food.
The molars a type of teeth with a flattened surface are used for final chewing, crushing and grinding food before swallowing. Most of the chewing occurs in the back of the jaw by the molar teeth. Three molars in each quadrant of the jaw, with a combined total of 12 are present in humans. The molars have numbered names according to their location: first molars are adjacent to second premolars towards the back of the mouth, with second and third molars following consecutively. The third molars are often called the wisdom teeth.
The new telematics systems number is more than doubled in the recent years from automakers. The systems like OnStar provide peace of mind in catastrophic events or crashes to the vehicle owners and their families. They are not only for emergencies, but also for conveniences (such as remote door unlocking) and offer navigation services etc. Now automakers are linking smartphone apps and telematics. These will provide the remote control access to the vehicle owners on some aspects. The telematics hardware is comes along with the vehicles and there is no need to pay any extra. Initially its services and features are for new cars. Once the trail period is completed, you need to subscribe them for yearly or monthly to continue receiving the services.
- Free telematics: Some companies are offering telematics free from charge for a first few years or months of the ownership. Latter you need to pay for that to continue. Ford with its sync system offering a subscription free limited telematics services for the first three years after you bought the car from dealer. When fuel shutoff valve activities in an accident or airbag deploys, its emergency assist automatically calls 911 through the connected bluetooth phone. Sync’s vehicle report with an online portal provides owners maintenance reminders and online diagnostic information. You can get the automated navigation to a required location, and businesses and services in an area with sync’s traffic. These systems provide conveniences and peace of mind, but you need to pay for it.
- Internet and calling: There are many companies offering Internet and call based telematics with their telematics services.
- BMW is offering an internet based Google search of services and businesses, which is tied with car’s navigation system. It also provides the information about the gas filling stations and its updated prices, stock market index, weather forecasts and traffic information. It offers a few minutes calling system, which will helpful to you in case of forget mobile or the battery is dead, for this you need to subscribe.
- The General Motors OnStar offering hands free calling embedded with cellular modem. Subscribers can purchase the prepaid talk time.
- Mercedes Benz also offering a wide range of services. Safe Ride is one of its mbrace system services. It offers to contact a taxi company or to arrange transportation when the owner feels he should not drive. When the vehicle alarm is on for more than thirty seconds, the embrace system sends an email or a text message to the vehicle owner. It also offers weather forecasts, and traffic information.
- Security services: Emergency services and the vehicle collision are the core telematics features available in all the vehicles. When the car airbags are deployed or other sensors triggered, the emergency telematics sends a message to the command center. An executive will contact through the telematics. If the person not responded or confirmed there is an accident, the command center immediately dispatches emergency response personnel.
The telematics also offer many types of other services. Those are like remote locking of door, nearby restaurants and other required services, text to speech through Bluetooth, smartphone apps integration, and so on.
The process of recruiting is selecting the right candidate for the right job. It is one of the major functions of human resource department. The process of recruitment involves various steps to hire a candidate for a particular job. This article discusses the steps involved in recruitment process.
Steps in recruiting
Following are basic steps in recruitment process and commence with:
- Identifying and defining the job: The first and important step in recruting is to identify and define the job you are hiring for. This involves posts that are to be filled, number of candidates needed, qualifications required and the job profile. This makes your recruitment process easy and simple.
- Preparing job descriptions: This step will help you in deciding the type of person you are searching for. This should include title of the job, purpose and duty of the role, job location and information of the company. Moreover, decide on the additional responsibilities and certain specific skills a person need to have.
- Advertising the job vacancy: Advertising the vacancy is a successful way of recruitment process. By advertising the job, you can reach and attract a great number of looking for the job. The ad should necessarily include name of the company, job position, duties and responsibilities, skills and experienced required, salary package and the date of interview.
- Managing the responses: After advertising your company’s vacancy, you need to manage the responses. Many applications come. It becomes a challenge for the company to select the right candidate according to job profile. So with huge responses, managing and shortlisting the best is required.
- Shortlisting of applicants/candidates: The next step in the process of recruitment is shortlisting of the applicants. This involves selecting the best among the candidates based on skills and experience required for the job, and then calling for the interview.
- Arranging the interview: For arranging interview, set a day and time. Then, through telephone or email inform them about the interview. Make a reminder call before interview if required.
- Interview and decision making: Interview is an opportunity for the company and for the applicant to know one another. As interview helps in knowing a candidate’s skills and experiences, compare it with other candidates, and decide which one will be the best match for the post. Finally, this is followed by appointment formalities.
These are the basic steps that make recruitment process easy and simple. read more…
Background check is one of the important task while buying a used car. This will help to avoid legal and other issues relating to car. Some basic background checks are as follows:
Documentation: Check all documents for suitability for the car. It contains color of the car, type (like saloon, hatchback, etc.). A seller should be able to sell the car to you with genuine documentation.
Check carefully the car’s hand book, it provides guidelines on all aspects of the vehicle. Make sure to check whether the relevant documents are matching. Also, look into the stamped service history with regular service intervals.
Mileage: Mileage another tool to check the background or history of the car. It can be through the following.
- Ask the seller about the correctness of information on mileage.
- Try to get some written warranty on mileage. It will add peace of mind while buying a used car.
- Be clear with the note whether the reading is in kilometers or miles.
- If the seller is unwilling to give any written or oral conformation about the actual mileage of the car, you should have to reconsider the purchasing of that car from that dealer or person.
- If the seller is willing to give you the verbal guarantee, note down exactly what he says. It will be helpful for reference latter.
- If you want to confirm clearly about the mileage of the car, you can contact the previous owner (s) of that car for double check.
- Any type of odometer (the device that records the distance of the vehicle traveled) can be tampered and manipulated to show less distance traveled by the vehicle. So be aware of it. Tampering/manipulating of odometer is illegal. It misleads consumers.
- Knowing about the seller, the historical odometer frauds in that area and complete check of car history can help to avoid the odometer fraud.
Warranty: If you buy from a private individual or in auction, generally the warranty for the car might not be available. If you have a warranty with the car, check which type of warranty it is and what it covers, whether it is the manufacturer’s warranty or a private person’s warranty.
The certified pre-owned or used cars will have warranty from the private authorized agencies, or dealers or directly from the manufacturers. The manufacturers warranty for the certified cars must satisfy certain conditions. If you find any such cars, first check thoroughly in those documents. If you want to check with the concern certificate issued agency. If the certificate is genuine the car is purchasable. These show that the car is in good condition as a new car. So the cost is close to that of a new car in such model. read more…
Today, people are using the Internet to visit websites they like. Even people who do not know how to operate a computer are familiar with the word website. In the websites there are so many types. Some of the most popular type of the websites are as follows:
- Personal websites: Some of the internet providers and some websites will offer some space to maintain the data in their server. Generally these are started with their own server name and followed by the user name or the name given for registration. Mostly these are using to share the family photos, the teenagers data and photos, online diary etc. These are not search engine friendly websites.
- Business websites: Business websites are professionally managed websites. Business websites contain information about the company, information about the businesses of the company, product details, promotion of the business etc.
In case of small business, websites is built and managed by a single person or an outside service provider, who have taken the site for outsource. In case of big companies, the websites are managed by dedicated teams.
- Blogs: Blogs are the flexible to share the information and thoughts without any restriction. The people can write anything based on their interest in the blogs at anytime just by login into their blog. In recent years, many big and small companies are also writing blogs to interact with the customers. Some large companies are using blogs to communicate the ideas across the organization.
- Mobile websites: Mobile websites are optimized version of websites for mobile phones. Some of these websites start with letter ‘m’ instead of ‘www’. For example m.sitename.com.
- Informative and education: These websites are maintaining for information to read and educate the public. Most popular website is Wikipedia.
- Search engine: There is no need to explain about the search engine websites. These are looks like websites but little different from them. Search engine websites will search the web for the queries. The best example is Google.
- E-commerce websites: E-commerce websites are used to sell the products through the internet. These websites display the product features, price, availability and other information. There are so many websites at present running by small and large businesses around the world. Example for the e-commerce website is amazon.
- Social networking websites: Social networking websites are very popular websites. These are helpful to connect people in a single platform from different places. Today these these networking websites have become important for marketing the business products of different companies. Example is Facebook.
These are some major types of websites based on the usage. Each one have its own unique features and unique purpose. Websites are become the primary sources to know the information because of its flexibility and the technology enable them to get in hand. read more…
The main function of the air conditioners is to lower the temperature and blow out cool conditioned air. The working of the air conditioner is similar to that of the refrigerators. Refrigerators cool small space, whereas air conditioners cool large area of the room.
How air conditioners work
Air conditioner comprises of compressor, condenser, evaporator and expansion valve. Compressor and condenser are located outside the house, whereas an evaporator and a fan is on the cold side and inside of the room or house.
The work of the air conditioner is to move warm indoor air to outside of the house thereby blowing out cool and filtered air. The warm air from the room is cooled by cold pipes known as evaporator coil. There is an expansion valve in between two sets of coil, liquid refrigerant that is compressed is moved in to evaporator by this expansion valve.
A special liquid like chemical is filled in the evaporator coil which is known as refrigerant that converts liquid to gas when absorbing warmth and heat from the air. The refrigerant is moved into another coil which is located outside the house where it converts in to a liquid to a gas. The coil that is outside is called a condenser as the refrigerant is condensed again in to a liquid from gas.
The compressor helps in moving the refrigerant between the coils thereby changing pressure making the refrigerant evaporate in the appropriate coils. The motor uses this entire energy to run the compressor. Finally fans circulates air conditioned air.
This process continues until the room has reached the temperature you wanted to cool. It is the work of the thermostat that senses temperature setting. Again when the room becomes warm, the compressor starts cooling the air.
Window ACs encloses all the components in one place, whereas other types of ACs have two units that is an external unit and an internal unit, both the units are linked through pipes and electrical cables and their working is some what different from Window AC. read more…
The brakes help to slowdown the car. Most commonly, people think that the brakes squeeze against disc or drum, and that pressure slows down the vehicle. This is actually a part of the brake equation. The brakes are a mechanism to change the energy types. When you are traveling on your vehicle, it is kinetic energy, and if you apply the brakes, the vehicle will stop here the friction by the brake converting the kinetic energy into thermal energy. You need a method to apply the brakes in order to make them work. The method or mechanism starts from applying the force for brake through your foot or your hand, to force reaches the brake to stop, all of this process is the brake actuator system.
- Cable operated: The cable-operated actuator is the basic one; at the each end of the lever, cable is connected. When you squeeze on one lever with your hand or press it with leg, it pulls the lever at the other end. An elliptical cam is placed at the brake end lever. In the brake shoe’s circular cup, the elliptical cam rotates inside, and forces the brake shoe to move apart.
- Solid bar connection: We can found the solid bar connection in older motorbikes rear brake. This system amplifies the force on the lever or pedal before it gets to the brakes. Along with the elliptical actuator solid bar connection system is used in the drum brakes. This system needs the suspension components matched pivot points or hinge, so it become a big disadvantage. If they are not present, when you are going over a bump, it put the brake as suspension moves relative to the lever.
- Single circuit hydraulic: The single circuit hydraulic brake actuator system is the most used system in motorbikes and cars today. The bars and cables are replaced with hydraulic fluid, reservoirs and plungers. This system has three basic components. Those are the reservoirs, the slave cylinder and the master cylinder. These are filled with non-compressible hydraulic brake fluid and joined together with hydraulic hose. A small piston assembly in the master cylinder is compressed when squeeze the brake lever or press with foot on the brake. The brake fluid does not compress, so instantaneously the pressure transferred to the slave cylinder through the hydraulic brake line. That the slave assembly is either connected the brake caliper or with the lever to activate the brakes, and the slave cylinder acts directly on the brake pads. The brake fluid absorbs the heat from the brakes because of arrangement of the slave cylinder.
- Dual circuit hydraulic: These are available in particular BMW bikes, newer motorbikes and on high luxury vehicles. It has two separate circuits, the command circuit and the separate circuit. The command circuit act with your foot or hand. The separate circuit is under the control of an on-board computer, and this is actually connected to the brakes. When you apply the brakes, the brake computer receives the pressure signals through the command circuit. The advantage with dual circuit system is, the command circuit system is separated totally from the brakes and never get the heat.
- Brake by wire: Brake by wire is the most advanced system until to date. These are the direct copy from some types of racing brakes. Dual circuit hydraulic system and the brake by wire are much similar, but in brake by wire system electronics are replaced to the command circuit of dual circuit hydraulic system. An electrical resistance measurement tool (hypersensitive rheostat) is connected with lever or brake pedal. Based on the operating of brake the brake computer gets the electrical signal. Means when you press more the electrical signal sent to the brake computer are more. From here onwards, it performs like the secondary circuit. The main advantage with this system is you can place the brake pedal or lever at anywhere.
Now check what type of brake systems your vehicles have. Based on different parameters of the vehicle the brake actuators are different. However, every brake system works well. read more…
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Brakes are used to control the motion of the vehicle. The slowing down of a vehicle depends on several factors such as braking force, vehicle weight and total braking surface area. It also depends on brake system conversion from wheel to heat and the heat removal from brake components. This is the main difference between a drum brake and disc brake. Now we will see the difference between a drum and disc brake in detail.
Drum brakes are the early brake system in automotive brake system. The components in a drum brake are built in a round drum and it rotates along with wheels. That is why it is called drum brake. Inside it is with a set of shoes. The shoes are forced against the drum and slows down the wheel, when the brake pedal is pressed. When a vehicle is coming down from a hill with a heavy load, the need for usage of brake is high in this case as it loses it effectiveness. Also when the vehicle is going faster and needs to apply brakes frequently, this system become ineffectiveness. It is because of heat production in the process of conversion of kinetic energy of wheel into thermal energy of heat.
Disc brakes also works on the same principles of drum brakes like friction and heat. But the design is different from drum brakes. Instead of metal drum in drum brakes, rotor and caliper are used in disc brakes. The rotor in the disc brakes is fully exposed to outside air. This helps the disc brakes to constantly cool the rotor.
Advantages and disadvantages of drum and disc brakes
- Cost: The cost of drum brakes are less expensive when compared to disc brakes.
- Water resistance: Drum brakes are not water resistance, the performance of drum brakes is poor when wet. Disc brakes are water resistance and more reliable than drum brakes even when they are wet.
- Heat resistance: When the drum brakes get heated because of its continuous apply, the performance will decrease. The disc brakes have more resistance from heat because of its exposure towards open air and cools the components.
- Maintenance: Even if the initial disc brakes are expensive, they are easy to maintain than the drum brakes.
In most people’s opinion and tested results say that, disc brakes are better than drum brakes. But both of them have their own pros and cons, so consider the one that best suits your driving needs. read more…
Dental implant procedure is important to make sure the teeth are more functional. Before going for dental implant surgery, it is important to update the health status to the dentist. As with other cases, dental implant surgery involves a surgical procedure, and may last for 6-9 months. It totally depends on the condition of jaw bone, gums and teeth. In this article, we will deal with dental implant procedure.
Dental Implants involves following steps:
1. Mouth evaluation and discussing with the patient
After examining your mouth, the dentist will let you know about your oral health and when you can start with dental implant surgery. Dentists will explain to you in detail the implants and the procedure for the same.
The pros and cons of implants and the options that are available are discussed. Any questions or problems on the patient’s part are resolved by the dentist. If satisfied, dental implant surgery in planned.
2. Extraction of existing tooth if required
If a tooth is infected or damaged, it should be removed first, and it requires to be healed which happens within a period of time. After healing, your gums are free from problems, and you can go ahead for dental implant surgery.
3. Implants insertion
Local anesthesia is given to numb the entire mouth. Amount of anesthesia given depends on the time involved during this process. An incision in the gums is made where the dental implant has to be fixed. A dental drill is used to create space in the jaw bone.
Then, the implants are screwed in the place meant for them manually or with the help of an implant drill. After this, the second component is screwed into the implant, and it will remain during the healing period. One or more stitches are done to close the gums.
During the process of healing, you need to take medications as advised by the dentist. In initial period, you may feel discomfort as you have pain or sometimes bleeding in gums where the implant is fixed.
In the second phase, the second component that was screwed into the implant is removed. Extension is made to the implant to make the new crown sit on it, which again needs healing time.
After your gums heal completely, the dentist will call you for taking impression of the teeth so that a new crown is made, and you will get a call from them when your crown is ready. Then, they fix the crown either with the help of screws or by cementing to the extension of the implant.
After the successful surgery of dental implants, take medications as prescribed by the doctor. You need to take care of them by brushing and flossing regularly.
Regular check-ups are important make sure that implant surgery gives optimal results. With proper care and maintenance, your implant will have a longer life. Visiting your dentist once in every six months keeps you free from dental problems. read more…